Indoor carbon monoxide and PM2.5 concentrations by cooking fuels in Pakistan.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California at Davis, CA, USA.
Indoor Air (Impact Factor: 3.3). 12/2008; 19(1):75-82. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0668.2008.00563.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In developing countries biomass combustion is a frequently used source of domestic energy and may cause indoor air pollution. Carbon monoxide (CO)and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 lm or less (PM2.5)were measured in kitchens using wood or natural gas (NG) in a semi-rural community in Pakistan. Daytime CO and PM2.5 levels were measured for eight continuous hours in 51 wood and 44 NG users from December 2005 to April 2006. The laser photometer PM2.5 (Dustrak, TSI) was calibrated for field conditions and PM2.5 measurements were reduced by a factor of 2.77. CO was measured by an electrochemical monitor (Model T15v, Langan). The arithmetic mean for daytime CO concentration was 29.4 ppm in wood users; significantly higher than 7.5 ppm in NG users (P < 0.001). The arithmetic mean for daytime PM2.5 concentrations was 2.74 mg/m3 in wood users; significantly higher than 0.38 mg/m3 in NG users (P < 0.001). Higher peak levels of CO and PM2.5 were also observed in wood users. Time spent in the kitchen during fuel burning was significantly related to increasing CO and PM2.5 concentrations in wood users.These findings suggest that cooking with wood fuel may lead to hazardous concentrations of CO and PM2.5. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Biomass combustion is frequently used in developing countries for cooking. This study showed very high level of air pollution in kitchens using wood as the cooking fuel. Many people, especially women and children, are vulnerable to exposure to very high levels of air pollutants as they spend time in the kitchen during cooking hours.

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    ABSTRACT: It has recently been estimated that 4 million deaths each year are associated with air pollution originating from household solid fuel use. Interventions to reduce biomass fuel-related emissions can yield a diverse stream of benefits including improved public health, socio-economic development, reduced land degradation and climate change mitigation. This study investigates the use of indigenous knowledge to inform interventions to combat indoor air pollution at a rural site in the Punjab province of Pakistan. The results indicate that the majority of people using biomass fuel had knowledge of its ill health effects. A range of methods were utilised to reduce indoor smoke including cooking in open spaces, use of chimneys, better ventilation and use of dry fuel. Education and housing type showed a statistically significant relationship with awareness of methods to reduce indoor exposure to biomass smoke. These findings lend support to the notion that communities have indigenous knowledge and their own methods to reduce exposure to indoor smoke from biomass fuels; this knowledge can be used as tool to design and implement sustainable intervention strategies to reduce the risk of exposure to indoor air pollution. It is recommended that a community based intervention focusing on locally manufactured improved stoves and better designed cooking spaces would be a suitable intervention in this region.
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    Environmental Research 10/2013; · 3.24 Impact Factor
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