Mobilization of qnrB2 and ISCR1 in plasmids.

Division of Molecular and Genomic Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Impact Factor: 4.45). 01/2009; 53(3):1235-7. DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00970-08
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The DNA sequences of two IncHI2 plasmids, pEC-IMP and pEC-IMPQ, from metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacter cloacae clinical isolates were determined. The two conjugative plasmids are almost identical, but pEC-IMPQ carries an additional segment containing an orf513 (ISCR1), a truncated 3' conserved sequence, and a qnrB2. Comparative analyses provide support for the proposed ISCR1-mediated gene mobilization.

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Insertion sequences such as IS CR1 promote capture, transposition and expression of bla CTX-M genes. Thus, gene dissemination in bacterial populations occurs rapidly. Objective: To determine the presence of IS CR1 sequence genes and their association with bla CTX-M-1 and bla CTX-M-2 on plasmids IncN and IncFIIA from K. pneumoniae of nosocomial origin, was determined. Materials and methods: Three strains of K. pneumoniae with reduced susceptibility to extendedspectrum cephalosporins were isolated from neonatal sepsis cases of nosocomial origin. Phenotypic tests showed the presence of ESBLs. Plasmids were isolated and classified according to incompatibility groups by PCR replicon typing. Detection and association of IS CR1 with bla CTX-M genes were determined by PCR and direct sequencing through the use of several sets of PCR primers. Results: All strains showed phenotypic profile consistent with ESBL-producing transferred by conjugation. PCR amplification assay for CTX-M together with sequencing analysis revealed that strains carrying bla CTX-M-1 y bla CTX-M-2 genes were localized in plasmids of approximately 150 kb related to IncN and IncFIIA groups, respectively. IS CR1 was found upstream and associated with bla CTX-M-1 y bla CTX-M-2 genes. Conclusion. Thus far, this is the first Venezuelan report, in which IS CR1 presence is closely related to bla CTX-M-1 y bla CTX-M-2 gene mobilization in IncN and IncFIIA conjugative plasmids located in K. pneumonaiae strains circulating at a neonatal high risk unit.
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    ABSTRACT: A patient was colonised by IMP-4-producing E. cloacae and E. coli for 7 months. IMP-4-producing E. cloacae strains were first and last isolated at day 33 and at 8(th) months after admission, respectively. IMP-4-producing E. coli strains were first and last isolated at day 88 and 181 after admission, respectively. E. cloacae and E. coli shared identical genetic features with blaIMP-4, blaTEM-1, qnrB2, aacA4, H12 and ISCR1. This study showed the first prolonged colonisation with in vivo interspecies transfer of blaIMP-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Three mechanisms for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) have been discovered since 1998. Plasmid genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, and qnrVC code for proteins of the pentapeptide repeat family that protects DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV from quinolone inhibition. The qnr genes appear to have been acquired from chromosomal genes in aquatic bacteria, are usually associated with mobilizing or transposable elements on plasmids, and are often incorporated into sul1-type integrons. The second plasmid-mediated mechanism involves acetylation of quinolones with an appropriate amino nitrogen target by a variant of the common aminoglycoside acetyltransferase AAC(6')-Ib. The third mechanism is enhanced efflux produced by plasmid genes for pumps QepAB and OqxAB. PMQR has been found in clinical and environmental isolates around the world and appears to be spreading. The plasmid-mediated mechanisms provide only low-level resistance that by itself does not exceed the clinical breakpoint for susceptibility but nonetheless facilitates selection of higher-level resistance and makes infection by pathogens containing PMQR harder to treat.