Mobilization of qnrB2 and ISCR1 in plasmids.

Division of Molecular and Genomic Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Impact Factor: 4.57). 01/2009; 53(3):1235-7. DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00970-08
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The DNA sequences of two IncHI2 plasmids, pEC-IMP and pEC-IMPQ, from metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacter cloacae clinical isolates were determined. The two conjugative plasmids are almost identical, but pEC-IMPQ carries an additional segment containing an orf513 (ISCR1), a truncated 3' conserved sequence, and a qnrB2. Comparative analyses provide support for the proposed ISCR1-mediated gene mobilization.

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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) qnr genes by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolates collected from aquatic environments in Jinan during 2 years (2008.3-2009.11). Genes were identified to variant level by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis or sequencing. qnrA1, qnrB2, qnrB4, qnrB6, qnrB9, qnrS1, and the new qnrB variant qnrB26 were detected in 31 strains from six genera (Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp., Shigella spp., and Citrobacter spp.), four of which contained double qnr genes. Other PMQR genes, aac(6')-Ib-cr and qepA, were found in 12 (38.7%) and 5 (16.1%) of 31 isolates, respectively; while qepA was found in Shigella spp. for the first time. Eight types of β-lactamase genes and eight other types of resistance genes were also present in the 31 qnr-positive isolates. The detection rate for five β-lactamase genes (blaTEM, blaCTX, ampR, blaDHA, and blaSHV) was >45%. Class 1 integrons and complex class 1 integrons were prevalent in these strains, which contained 15 different gene cassette arrays and 5 different insertion sequence common region 1 (ISCR1)-mediated downstream structures. qnrA1, qnrB2, and qnrB6 were present in three ISCR1-mediated downstream structures: qnrA1-ampR, sapA-like-qnrB2, and sdr-qnrB6. We also analyzed the horizontal transferability of PMQR genes and other resistance determinants. The qnr genes and some integrons and resistance genes from 18 (58.1%) of the 31 qnr-positive strains could be transferred to E. coli J53 Azi(R) or E. coli DH5α recipient strains using conjugation or transformation methods. The results showed that a high number of qnr genes were associated with other resistance genes in aquatic environments in Jinan. This suggests that we should avoid over-using antibiotics and monitor aquatic environments to control the spread of antibiotic resistance genes.
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    ABSTRACT: The gene for New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) has been reported to be transmitted via plasmids which are easily transferable and capable of wide distribution. We report the isolation of two NDM-1 producing strains and possible in vivo transfer of blaNDM-1 in a patient. Clinical samples were collected for bacterial culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing from a patient during a 34-day hospitalization. The presence of blaNDM-1 was detected by PCR and sequencing. Plasmids of interest were sequenced. Medical records were reviewed for evidence of association between the administration of antibiotics and the acquisition of the NDM-1 resistance. A NDM-1 positive Raoultella planticola was isolated from blood on the ninth day of hospitalization without administration of any carbapenem antibiotics and a NDM-1 positive Escherichia coli was isolated from feces on the 29th day of hospitalization and eight days after imipenem administration. The blaNDM-1 was carried by a 280 kb plasmid pRpNDM1-1 in R. planticola and a 58 kb plasmid pEcNDM1-4 in E. coli. The two plasmids shared a 4812 bp NDM-1-ISCR1 element which was found to be excisable from the plasmid as a free form and transferrable in vitro to a NDM-1 negative plasmid from E. coli. blaNDM-1 was embedded in an ISCR1 complex class 1 integron as a novel 4812 bp NDM-1-ISCR1 element. The element was found to be able to self excise to become a free form, which may provide a new vehicle for NDM-1 dissemination. This mechanism could greatly accelerate the spread of NDM-1 mediated broad spectrum β-lactam resistance.
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    ABSTRACT: Enterobacteriaceae resistant to quinolones frequently arise in animals, being easily disseminated through the food-chain. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants in Salmonella spp. (n=183) and Escherichia coli (n=180) isolates, collected from food-producing animals and food products among swine, poultry, rabbits and cattle. All isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and molecular screening of PMQR determinants. β-Lactamase-encoding genes, and the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE genes were also investigated in PMQR-positive isolates. Plasmid characterization was performed by conjugation, followed by replicon-typing. Genetic relatedness of PMQR-positive E. coli was examined by Multilocus Sequence Typing, while Salmonella was previously serotyped. The association of mobile genetic elements and PMQR was investigated through PCR mapping assays. Overall, 4.1% (15/363) isolates harbored qnrB2 (n=3), qnrB19 (n=3), and qnrS1 (n=9) genes. All but one isolate presented one to four mutations in QRDR of gyrA or parC genes, which is consistent with the range of MIC values detected (0.19-64mg/L) for ciprofloxacin; 60% (9/15) of qnr-harboring isolates were non-susceptible to β-lactam antibiotics which was justified by the presence of β-lactamases from TEM (TEM-1, n=8; TEM-135, n=1) and SHV (SHV-108, n=1) families. Analysis of mobile genetic elements revealed that qnr genes were detected nearby relevant genetic elements like intI1, ISEcl2, IS26 and ISCR1 and enclosed in diverse Inc. type plasmids. This study illustrated the existence of Qnr-producing E. coli and Salmonella from food-producing animals, associated to specific mobile elements that might mediate their transference between species and among distinct settings.
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