Many human diseases are caused by missense substitutions that result in misfolded proteins that lack biological function. Here we express a mutant form of the human cystathionine beta-synthase protein, I278T, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and show that it is possible to dramatically restore protein stability and enzymatic function by manipulation of the cellular chaperone environment. We demonstrate that Hsp70 and Hsp26 bind specifically to I278T but that these chaperones have opposite biological effects. Ethanol treatment induces Hsp70 and causes increased activity and steady-state levels of I278T. Deletion of the SSA2 gene, which encodes a cytoplasmic isoform of Hsp70, eliminates the ability of ethanol to restore function, indicating that Hsp70 plays a positive role in proper I278T folding. In contrast, deletion of HSP26 results in increased I278T protein and activity, whereas overexpression of Hsp26 results in reduced I278T protein. The Hsp26-I278T complex is degraded via a ubiquitin/proteosome-dependent mechanism. Based on these results we propose a novel model in which the ratio of Hsp70 and Hsp26 determines whether misfolded proteins will either be refolded or degraded.
"Altered conformational properties of CBS mutants may affect protein turnover in vivo The higher proteolytic susceptibility of the majority of CBS mutants in this study indicates their inclination to unfolding. This observation is consistent with previous work by Singh and Kruger demonstrating that the most common mutant, p.I278T, exhibited accelerated ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis in S. cerevisiae and that turnover of the mutated protein could have been altered by a manipulation of the levels of heat shock proteins (Singh and Kruger 2009). Furthermore, several mutants were rescued by treatment with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in yeast or by MG132 in patient-derived fibroblasts (Singh et al. 2010), indicating that more rapid degradation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of CBS deficiency. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein misfolding has been proposed to be a common pathogenic mechanism in many inborn errors of metabolism including cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency. In this work, we describe the structural properties of nine CBS mutants that represent a common molecular pathology in the CBS gene. Using thermolysin in two proteolytic techniques, we examined conformation of these mutants directly in crude cell extracts after expression in E. coli. Proteolysis with thermolysin under native conditions appeared to be a useful technique even for very unstable mutant proteins, whereas pulse proteolysis in a urea gradient had limited values for the study of the majority of CBS mutants due to their instability. Mutants in the active core had either slightly increased unfolding (p.A114V, p.E302K and p.G307S) or extensive unfolding with decreased stability (p.H65R, p.T191M, p.I278T and p.R369C). The extent of the unfolding inversely correlated with the previously determined degree of tetrameric assembly and with the catalytic activity. In contrast, mutants bearing aminoacid substitutions in the C-terminal regulatory domain (p.R439Q and p.D444N) had increased global stability with decreased flexibility. This study shows that proteolytic techniques can reveal conformational abnormalities even for CBS mutants that have activity and/or a degree of assembly similar to the wild-type enzyme. We present here a methodological strategy that may be used in cell lysates to evaluate properties of proteins that tend to misfold and aggregate and that may be important for conformational studies of disease-causing mutations in the field of inborn errors of metabolism.
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"The usual mode of action of sHsps is to bind unfolded nascent proteins and prevent the formation of aggregates in cooperation with large Hsps, that was observed when endogeneous marker proteins are subjected to heat stress [44,45]. In contrast, recently it was demonstrated that Hsp70 and Hsp26 have opposite biological effects on the expression of mutant human cystathionine β-synthase protein in S. cerevisiae grown under normal temperature conditions . In our case, the sHsps bound the human virus proteins-eEF1A multimers irreversibly and promoted formation of large insoluble aggregates which could not be prevented by the binding of soluble large Hsps. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The expression of human virus surface proteins, as well as other mammalian glycoproteins, is much more efficient in cells of higher eukaryotes rather than yeasts. The limitations to high-level expression of active viral surface glycoproteins in yeast are not well understood. To identify possible bottlenecks we performed a detailed study on overexpression of recombinant mumps hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (MuHN) and measles hemagglutinin (MeH) in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, combining the analysis of recombinant proteins with a proteomic approach.
Overexpressed recombinant MuHN and MeH proteins were present in large aggregates, were inactive and totally insoluble under native conditions. Moreover, the majority of recombinant protein was found in immature form of non-glycosylated precursors. Fractionation of yeast lysates revealed that the core of viral surface protein aggregates consists of MuHN or MeH disulfide-linked multimers involving eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) and is closely associated with small heat shock proteins (sHsps) that can be removed only under denaturing conditions. Complexes of large Hsps seem to be bound to aggregate core peripherally as they can be easily removed at high salt concentrations. Proteomic analysis revealed that the accumulation of unglycosylated viral protein precursors results in specific cytosolic unfolded protein response (UPR-Cyto) in yeast cells, characterized by different action and regulation of small Hsps versus large chaperones of Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp110 families. In contrast to most environmental stresses, in the response to synthesis of recombinant MuHN and MeH, only the large Hsps were upregulated whereas sHsps were not. Interestingly, the amount of eEF1A was also increased during this stress response.
Inefficient translocation of MuHN and MeH precursors through ER membrane is a bottleneck for high-level expression in yeast. Overexpression of these recombinant proteins induces the UPR's cytosolic counterpart, the UPR-Cyto, which represent a subset of proteins involved in the heat-shock response. The involvement of eEF1A may explain the mechanism by which only large chaperones, but not small Hsps are upregulated during this stress response. Our study highlights important differences between viral surface protein expression in yeast and mammalian cells at the first stage of secretory pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Missense mutant proteins, such as those produced in individuals with genetic diseases, are often misfolded and subject to processing by intracellular quality control systems. Previously, we have shown using a yeast system that enzymatic function could be restored to I278T cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS), a cause of homocystinuria, by treatments that affect the intracellular chaperone environment. Here, we extend these studies and show that it is possible to restore significant levels of enzyme activity to 17 of 18 (94%) disease causing missense mutations in human cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by exposure to ethanol, proteasome inhibitors, or deletion of the Hsp26 small heat shock protein. All three of these treatments induce Hsp70, which is necessary but not sufficient for rescue. In addition to CBS, these same treatments can rescue disease-causing mutations in human p53 and the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene. These findings do not appear restricted to S. cerevisiae, as proteasome inhibitors can restore significant CBS enzymatic activity to CBS alleles expressed in fibroblasts derived from homocystinuric patients and in a mouse model for homocystinuria that expresses human I278T CBS. These findings suggest that proteasome inhibitors and other Hsp70 inducing agents may be useful in the treatment of a variety of genetic diseases caused by missense mutations.
Maria Lauda Tomasi, Minjung Ryoo, Komal Ramani, Ivan Tomasi, Pasquale Giordano, José M Mato, Shelly C Lu
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