Down's syndrome is a common genetic abnormality that can affect most parts of the eye. Common ocular features are described, as well as those which cause reduced vision, requiring referral to an ophthalmologist.
"As found in other studies, blepharitis and conjunctivitis, both inflammatory conditions of the eye, were found to be common conditions in individuals with Down syndrome. Blepharitis may be related to the narrow, slanted palpebral fissures characteristic in individuals with Down syndrome  or an increased susceptibility to infection associated with the impact of trisomy 21 on the immune system [22, 55, 56]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A myriad of ophthalmic disorders is associated with the phenotype of Down syndrome including strabismus, cataracts, and refractive errors potentially resulting in significant visual impairment. Ophthalmic sequelae have been extensively studied in children and adolescents with Down syndrome but less often in older adults. In-depth review of medical records of older adults with Down syndrome indicated that ophthalmic disorders were common. Cataracts were the most frequent ophthalmic disorder reported, followed by refractive errors, strabismus, and presbyopia. Severity of intellectual disability was unrelated to the presence of ophthalmic disorders. Also, ophthalmic disorders were associated with lower vision-dependent functional and cognitive abilities, although not to the extent that was expected. The high prevalence of ophthalmic disorders highlights the need for periodic evaluations and individualized treatment plans for adults with Down syndrome, in general, but especially when concerns are identified.
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research 04/2012; 2012(6):974253. DOI:10.1155/2012/974253
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic disorder associated with mental retardation. It has been repeatedly shown that Ts65Dn mice, the prime animal model for DS, have severe cognitive and neural plasticity defects due to excessive inhibition. We report that increasing sensory-motor stimulation in adulthood through environmental enrichment (EE) reduces brain inhibition levels and promotes recovery of spatial memory abilities, hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and visual functions in adult Ts65Dn mice.
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