EHRA Practical Guide on the use of new oral anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: executive summary.
ABSTRACT New oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are an alternative for vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) to prevent stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). Both physicians and patients will have to learn how to use these drugs effectively and safely in specific clinical situations. This text is an executive summary of a practical guide that the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) has assembled to help physicians in the use of the different NOACs. The full text is being published in EP Europace. Practical answers have been formulated for 15 concrete clinical scenarios: (i) practical start-up and follow-up scheme for patients on NOACs; (ii) how to measure the anticoagulant effect of NOACs; (iii) drug-drug interactions and pharmacokinetics of NOACs; (iv) switching between anticoagulant regimens; (v) ensuring compliance of NOAC intake; (vi) how to deal with dosing errors; (vii) patients with chronic kidney disease; (viii) what to do if there is a (suspected) overdose without bleeding, or a clotting test is indicating a risk of bleeding?; (ix) management of bleeding complications; (x) patients undergoing a planned surgical intervention or ablation; (xi) patients undergoing an urgent surgical intervention; (xii) patients with AF and coronary artery disease; (xiii) cardioversion in a NOAC-treated patient; (xiv) patients presenting with acute stroke while on NOACs; (xv) NOACs vs. VKAs in AF patients with a malignancy. Since new information is becoming available at a rapid pace, an EHRA web site with the latest updated information accompanies the guide (www.NOACforAF.eu). It also contains links to the ESC AF Guidelines, a key message pocket booklet, print-ready files for a proposed universal NOAC anticoagulation card, and feedback possibilities.
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ABSTRACT: Due to low bioavailability and high inter-individual variability, monitoring of dabigatran may be required in specific situations to prevent the risk of bleedings or thrombosis. The aim of the study was to determine which coagulation assay(s) could be used to assess the impact of dabigatran on secondary haemostasis. Dabigatran was spiked at concentrations ranging from 4.7 ng/ml to 943.0 ng/ml in pooled citrated human platelet-poor plasma. The following clotting assays were performed: prothrombin time (PT); activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT); thrombin time (TT); ecarin clotting time (ECT); ecarin chromogenic assay (ECA); prothrombinase-induced clotting time (PiCT); activated clotting time (ACT); Hemoclot Thrombin Inhibitor (HTI) and thrombin generation assay (TGA). A concentration-dependent prolongation of PT, dPT, and aPTT was observed with aPTT being the more sensitive test. The results varied mostly due to the clotting reagent. HTI, ECT and TGA were the most sensitive tests but are not available 24 hours a day. In addition, HTI showed a linear correlation with a good reproducibility. Dabigatran induced a concentration-dependent delay and inhibition of tissue factor-induced TGA. Cut-offs related with higher risk of bleedings or thrombosis were defined for each reagent of aPTT and HTI. In conclusion, aPTT could be used for the monitoring of dabigatran and as screening test for the risk of overdose. However, because of its higher sensitivity, good reproducibility, excellent linear correlation at all doses, its simplicity of use, and possibilities of automation, HTI should be considered as the gold-standard.Thrombosis and Haemostasis 03/2012; 107(5):985-97. · 6.09 Impact Factor