Binge Drinking Impairs Vascular Function in Young Adults

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (Impact Factor: 16.5). 04/2013; 62(3). DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.03.049
Source: PubMed


OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to assess whether young binge drinkers have impaired macrovascular and microvascular function and cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factors compared to age-matched alcohol abstainers. BACKGROUND: Binge drinking rates are highest on college campuses and among 18- to 25-year-olds; however, macrovascular and microvascular endothelial function in young adults with a history of repeated binge drinking (≥5 standard drinks in 2 hrs. in men; ≥4 standard drinks in 2 hrs. in women) has not been investigated METHODS: We evaluated the cardiovascular profile, brachial artery endothelial-dependent flow mediated vasodilation (FMD), and flow independent nitroglycerin (NTG)-mediated dilation and vasoreactivity of resistance arteries (isolated from gluteal fat biopsies) in abstainers and binge drinkers. RESULTS: Men and women (18-25 years of age, abstainers [A] n = 17, binge drinkers [BD] n = 19) were enrolled. Among the BD group, past-month average number of binge episodes was 6 ± 1, and average duration of binge drinking behavior was 4 ± 0.6 years. FMD and NTG-mediated dilations were significantly lower in the BD (FMD: 8.4% ± 0.7, P = 0.022; NTG: 19.6% ± 2, P = 0.009) than the A group (FMD: 11 ± 0.7%; NTG: 28.6 ± 2%). ACh- and SNP-induced dilation in resistance arteries was not significantly different between the A and BD groups. However, ET-1-induced constriction was significantly enhanced in the BD group compared to the A group (P = 0.032). No differences between groups were found in blood pressure, lipoproteins, and C-reactive protein. CONCLUSIONS: Alterations in the macrocirculation and microcirculation may represent early clinical manifestations of CV risk in otherwise healthy young binge drinkers. This study has important clinical implications for screening young adults for a repeated history of binge drinking.

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Available from: Emily Church, May 16, 2014
    • "To our knowledge, no one has assessed whether stroke volume variability or vascular tone variability is disrupted during alcohol intoxication. Finally, oral alcohol administration has been shown to reduce HR baroreflex sensitivity (Fazio et al., 2001), and likewise it is possible that, due to its pharmacological actions on the nitric oxide pathway (Bau et al., 2005) and smooth muscle (Goslawski et al., 2013), alcohol would also reduce sensitivity in the vascular tone and stroke volume baroreflex branches. Thus, we tentatively hypothesized that alcohol would reduce baroreflex sensitivity across all baroreflex branches. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The detrimental effects of chronic heavy alcohol use on the cardiovascular system are well established and broadly appreciated. Integrated cardiovascular response to an acute dose of alcohol has been less studied. The present study examined the early effects of an acute dose of alcohol on the cardiovascular system, with particular emphasis on system variability and sensitivity. The goal was to begin to understand how acute alcohol disrupts dynamic cardiovascular regulatory processes prior to the development of cardiovascular disease. Methods: Healthy participants (N = 72, age 21–29) were randomly assigned to an alcohol, placebo, or no-alcohol control beverage condition. Beat-to-beat heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were assessed during a low-demand cognitive task prior to and following beverage consumption. Between-group differences in neurocardiac response to an alcohol challenge (blood alcohol concentration ~ 0.06 mg/dl) were tested. Results: The alcohol beverage group showed higher average HR, lower average stroke volume, lower HR variability and BP variability, and increased vascular tone baroreflex sensitivity after alcohol consumption. No changes were observed in the placebo group, but the control group showed elevated average HR and BP after beverage consumption, possibly due to consuming juice. At the level of the individual, an active alcohol dose appeared to disrupt the typically tight coupling between cardiovascular processes. Conclusions: A dose of alcohol quickly invoked multiple cardiovascular responses, possibly as an adaptive reaction to the acute pharmacological challenge. Future studies should assess how exposure to alcohol acutely disrupts or dissociates typically integrated neurocardiac functions.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 09/2015; In press. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    • "Binge drinking has been reported to increase CVD risk, such as sudden death, myocardial infarction, mortality after myocardial infarction, and stroke.16 One of the pathways by which binge drinking leads to CVD may be by increasing the risk and progression of atherosclerosis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Although binge drinking and high resting heart rate independently affect cardiovascular and all-cause mortality risk, the combined effect of these two risk factors and their interaction has rarely been studied. This study examined the association between binge drinking and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality and evaluated the potential modifying effect on this association of resting heart rate in Korean men. Methods Men aged 55 years or older in 1985 (n = 2600) were followed for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality for 20.8 years, until 2005. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality by binge drinking and resting heart rate using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results Heavy binge drinkers (≥12 drinks on one occasion) with elevated resting heart rate (≥80 bpm) had a HR of 2.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47–3.45) for death from cardiovascular disease and 1.37 (95% CI, 0.87–2.14) for all-cause mortality compared to the reference group (non-drinking and resting heart rate 61–79 bpm). The HRs of dying from cardiovascular disease increased linearly from 1.36 to 1.52, 1.71, and 2.25 among individuals with resting heart rate greater than or equal to 80 bpm within the four alcohol consumption categories (non-drinking, non-binge, moderate binge, and heavy binge), respectively. Conclusions Our findings suggest that, among older Korean men, heavy binge drinkers with an elevated resting heart rate are at high risk for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality.
    Journal of Epidemiology 04/2014; 24(4). DOI:10.2188/jea.JE20130101 · 3.02 Impact Factor
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