Intrathecal Analgesia and Restrictive Perioperative Fluid Management within Enhanced Recovery Pathway: Hemodynamic Implications

Department of Visceral Surgery (Hübner), University Hospital CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Journal of the American College of Surgeons (Impact Factor: 4.45). 04/2013; 216(6). DOI: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2013.02.011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Intrathecal analgesia and avoidance of perioperative fluid overload are key items within enhanced recovery pathways. Potential side effects include hypotension and renal dysfunction. STUDY DESIGN: From January 2010 until May 2010, all patients undergoing colorectal surgery within enhanced recovery pathways were included in this retrospective cohort study and were analyzed by intrathecal analgesia (IT) vs none (noIT). Primary outcomes measures were systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate for 48 hours after surgery. Renal function was assessed by urine output and creatinine values. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-three consecutive colorectal patients (127 IT and 36 noIT) were included in the analysis. Both patient groups showed low blood pressure values within the first 4 to 12 hours and a steady increase thereafter before return to baseline values after about 24 hours. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were significantly lower until 16 hours after surgery in patients having IT compared with the noIT group. Low urine output (<0.5 mL/kg/h) was reported in 11% vs 29% (IT vs noIT; p = 0.010) intraoperatively, 20% vs 11% (p = 0.387), 33% vs 22% (p = 0.304), and 31% vs 21% (p = 0.478) for postanesthesia care unit and postoperative days 1 and 2, respectively. Only 3 of 127 (2.4%) IT and 1 of 36 (2.8%) noIT patients had a transitory creatinine increase >50%; no patients required dialysis. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative hypotension affects approximately 10% of patients within an enhanced recovery pathway and is slightly more pronounced in patients with IT. Hemodynamic depression persists for <20 hours after surgery; it has no measurable negative impact and therefore cannot justify detrimental postoperative fluid overload.

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    ABSTRACT: Optimal perioperative fluid management is an important component of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) pathways. Fluid management within ERAS should be viewed as a continuum through the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative phases. Each phase is important for improving patient outcomes, and suboptimal care in one phase can undermine best practice within the rest of the ERAS pathway. The goal of preoperative fluid management is for the patient to arrive in the operating room in a hydrated and euvolemic state. To achieve this, prolonged fasting is not recommended, and routine mechanical bowel preparation should be avoided. Patients should be encouraged to ingest a clear carbohydrate drink two to three hours before surgery. The goals of intraoperative fluid management are to maintain central euvolemia and to avoid excess salt and water. To achieve this, patients undergoing surgery within an enhanced recovery protocol should have an individualized fluid management plan. As part of this plan, excess crystalloid should be avoided in all patients. For low-risk patients undergoing low-risk surgery, a "zero-balance" approach might be sufficient. In addition, for most patients undergoing major surgery, individualized goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) is recommended. Ultimately, however, the additional benefit of GDFT should be determined based on surgical and patient risk factors. Postoperatively, once fluid intake is established, intravenous fluid administration can be discontinued and restarted only if clinically indicated. In the absence of other concerns, detrimental postoperative fluid overload is not justified and "permissive oliguria" could be tolerated.
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