High mortality risks after major lower extremity amputation in Medicare patients with peripheral artery disease.
ABSTRACT Little is known regarding the contemporary outcomes of older patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) undergoing major lower extremity (LE) amputation in the United States. We sought to characterize clinical outcomes and factors associated with outcomes after LE amputation in patients with PAD.
Using data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2008, we examined the national patterns of mortality after major LE amputation among patients 65 years or older with PAD. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the association between clinical variables, comorbid conditions, year of index amputation, geographic variation, and major LE amputation.
Among 186,338 older patients with identified PAD who underwent major LE amputation, the mortality rate was 13.5% at 30 days, 48.3% at 1 year, and 70.9% at 3 years. Age per 5-year increase (hazard ratio [HR] 1.29, 95% CI 1.29-1.29), history of heart failure (HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.71-1.72), renal disease (HR 1.84. 95% CI 1.83-1.85), cancer (HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.70-1.72), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR 1.33, 95% CI, 1.32-1.33) were all independently associated with death after major LE amputation. Subjects who underwent above knee amputation had a statistically higher hazard of death when compared with subjects who underwent LE amputation at more distal locations (HR with above the knee amputation 1.31, 95% CI 1.25-1.36).
Older patients with PAD undergoing major LE amputation still face a slightly high mortality risk, with almost half of all patients with PAD dying within a year of major LE amputation.
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ABSTRACT: Questions: Can rules be developed to predict the risk of non-use of prostheses by people with lower limb amputation following discharge from rehabilitation? Are these clinical prediction rules valid? Design: Retrospective and prospective cohort study designs. Participants: Consecutive tertiary rehabilitation patients: 135 retrospective (103 males, mean age = 56 years, SD 15) and 66 prospective (58 males, mean age = 54 years, SD 16). Method: Medical records were audited for potential predictor variables. Retrospective participants were interviewed at a median of 1.9 years after discharge (IQR 1.4 to 2.5) and prospective participants at a median of 1.3 years (IQR 1.1 to 1.4). Results: Clinical prediction rules were identified at 4, 8 and 12 months after discharge, and validated. Amputation levels above transtibial and mobility-aid use were common predictors for all three time frames. At 4 months, if four out of five predictor variables were present (LR+ = 43.9, 95% CI 2.73 to 999+), the probability of non-use increased from 12 to 86% (p<0.001). At 8 months, if all three predictor variables were present (LR+ = 33.9, 95% CI 2.1 to 999+), the probability of non-use increased from 15 to 86% (p<0.001). At 12 months, if two out of three predictor variables were present (LR+=2.8, 95% CI 0.9 to 6.6), the probability of non-use increased from 17 to 36% (p<0.031). Conclusions: These validated clinical prediction rules have implications for rehabilitation and service model development. [Roffman CE, Buchanan J, Allison GT (2014) Predictors of non-use of prostheses by people with lower limb amputation after discharge from rehabilitation: development and validation of clinical prediction rules.Journal of PhysiotherapyXX: XX-XX]. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of physiotherapy 10/2014; In Press(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jphys.2014.09.003 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Little is known about long-term outcomes among patients who receive percutaneous angioplasty (PTA) for peripheral artery disease (PAD) then undergo below-knee or above-knee amputations. We sought to determine clinical outcomes associated with below-knee or above-knee amputation, along with possible explanatory factors and treatment strategies.PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e111130. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0111130 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background In the TRACER trial, vorapaxar, a protease-activated receptor-1 antagonist, plus standard care in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE ACS) patients did not significantly reduce the primary composite end point but reduced a key secondary end point and significantly increased bleeding. History of peripheral artery disease (PAD) was a risk-enrichment inclusion criterion. We investigated the efficacy and safety of vorapaxar in NSTE ACS patients with documented PAD. Methods TRACER was a double-blind, randomized trial comparing vorapaxar with placebo in 12,944 patients with NSTE ACS. Results In total, 936 (7.2%) patients had a history of PAD. Ischemic events occurred more frequently among patients with PAD (25.3%) versus no PAD (12.2%, P < .001), and Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries moderate/severe bleeding was more common in PAD (9.1%) versus no PAD (5.0%, P = .004). Similar rates of the composite end point (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) occurred in patients with PAD treated with vorapaxar and placebo (21.7% vs 24.8%, P interaction = .787). Patients with PAD treated with vorapaxar, when compared with placebo, also had a numerical reduction in peripheral revascularization procedures (8.1% vs 9.0%, P = .158) and a lower extremity amputation rate (0.9% vs 1.5%, P = .107). Vorapaxar increased Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries moderate/severe bleeding similarly in patients with PAD (hazard ratio 1.47, 95% CI 0.89-2.45) and without (hazard ratio 1.48, 95% CI 1.22-1.79; P interaction = .921). Conclusions Patients with NSTEACS and PAD were at increased risk for ischemic events. Lower rates of ischemic end points, peripheral revascularization, and amputation with vorapaxar did not reach statistical significance but warrant further investigation. Vorapaxar increased bleeding in both patients with and without PAD at a similar magnitude of risk.American Heart Journal 10/2014; 168(4):588-596. DOI:10.1016/j.ahj.2014.06.017 · 4.56 Impact Factor