The Histone Mark H3K36me3 Regulates Human DNA Mismatch Repair through Its Interaction with MutSα.
ABSTRACT DNA mismatch repair (MMR) ensures replication fidelity by correcting mismatches generated during DNA replication. Although human MMR has been reconstituted in vitro, how MMR occurs in vivo is unknown. Here, we show that an epigenetic histone mark, H3K36me3, is required in vivo to recruit the mismatch recognition protein hMutSα (hMSH2-hMSH6) onto chromatin through direct interactions with the hMSH6 PWWP domain. The abundance of H3K36me3 in G1 and early S phases ensures that hMutSα is enriched on chromatin before mispairs are introduced during DNA replication. Cells lacking the H3K36 trimethyltransferase SETD2 display microsatellite instability (MSI) and an elevated spontaneous mutation frequency, characteristic of MMR-deficient cells. This work reveals that a histone mark regulates MMR in human cells and explains the long-standing puzzle of MSI-positive cancer cells that lack detectable mutations in known MMR genes.
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ABSTRACT: Brain tumors are the most common solid tumors in children. Pediatric high-grade glioma (HGG) accounts for ∼8-12 % of these brain tumors and is a devastating disease as 70-90 % of patients die within 2 years of diagnosis. The failure to advance therapy for these children over the last 30 years is largely due to limited knowledge of the molecular basis for these tumors and a lack of disease models. Recently, sequencing of tumor cells revealed that histone H3 is frequently mutated in pediatric HGG, with up to 78 % of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) carrying K27M and 36 % of non-brainstem gliomas carrying either K27M or G34R/V mutations. Although mutations in many chromatin modifiers have been identified in cancer, this was the first demonstration that histone mutations may be drivers of disease. Subsequent studies have identified high-frequency mutation of histone H3 to K36M in chondroblastomas and to G34W/L in giant cell tumors of bone, which are diseases of adolescents and young adults. Interestingly, the G34 mutations, the K36M mutations, and the majority of K27M mutations occur in genes encoding the replacement histone H3.3. Here, we review the peculiar characteristics of histone H3.3 and use this information as a backdrop to highlight current thinking about how the identified mutations may contribute to disease development.Chromosoma 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00412-015-0510-4 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The development of new forms of treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma over the past two decades has been primarily focused on targeting the VHL/HIF pathway. The recent identification of mutations of chromatin-remodeling genes in clear-cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC), of genomic heterogeneity, and of a Warburg-like metabolic phenotype in advanced disease has had a profound effect on our understanding of the evolution of ccRCC and on potential approaches to personalized therapy. Early approaches to therapy for patients with advanced type I papillary RCC that have centered around the MET/HGF pathway will expand as more genomic information becomes available. Sporadic and familial type II papillary renal cell carcinoma are characterized by enhanced aerobic glycolysis and share an antioxidant response phenotype. In fumarate hydratase-deficient RCC, fumarate-induced succination of KEAP1 activates Nrf2 signaling. CUL3 and Nrf2 mutations as well as an Nrf2 activation phenotype are found in sporadic type II papillary RCC. Therapeutic approaches designed to target the Nrf2 pathway as well as to impair blood flow and glucose delivery in these cancers that are highly dependent on a robust tumor vasculature and on ready availability of glucose for energy production and glycolysis are in development. Clin Cancer Res; 21(1); 10-17. ©2015 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.Clinical Cancer Research 01/2015; 21(1):10-7. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-2993 · 8.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Deficient DNA mismatch repair (MMR) results in a strong mutator phenotype known as microsatellite instability (MSI), which is a hallmark of Lynch syndrome-associated cancers. MSI is characterized by length alterations within simple repeated sequences that are called microsatellites. Lynch syndrome is primarily caused by mutations in the MMR genes, mainly MLH1 and MSH2, and less frequently in MSH6, and rarely PMS2, and large genomic rearrangements account for 5-20 % of all mutations. Germ line hemiallelic methylations of MLH1 or MSH2 are termed as epimutations and have been identified as causative of Lynch syndrome. Moreover, germ line 3' deletions of EPCAM gene is involved in MSH2 methylation. MSI is also observed in about 15 % of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC), gastric cancer (GC), and endometrial cancer (EC), and at lower frequencies in other cancers, often in association with hypermethylation of the MLH1 gene. Trimethylation of histone H3 on Lys36 (H3K36 me3) is an epigenetic histone mark that was required for DNA MMR in vivo. Thus, mutations in the H3K36 trimethyltransferase SETD2 have been reported as a potential cause of MSI. Genetic, epigenetic, and transcriptomic differences have been identified between cancers with and without MSI. Recent comprehensive molecular characterizations of CRC, EC, and GC by The Cancer Genome Atlas indicate that MSI+ cancers are distinct biological entities. The BRAF V600E mutation is specifically associated with sporadic MSI+ CRCs with methylated MLH1, but is not associated with Lynch syndrome-related CRCs. Accumulating evidence indicates a role of interactions between MSI and microRNA (miRNA) in the pathogenesis of MSI-positive (MSI+) cancer. As another new mechanism underlying MSI, overexpression of miR-155 or miR-21 has been shown to downregulate the expression of the MMR genes. Gene targets of frameshift mutations caused by MSI are involved in various cellular functions, including DNA repair (MSH3 and MSH6), cell signaling (TGFBR2 and ACVR2A), apoptosis (BAX), epigenetic regulation (HDAC2 and ARID1A), and miRNA processing (TARBP2 and XPO5), and a subset of MSI+ CRCs reportedly shows the mutated miRNA machinery phenotype. Moreover, microsatellite repeats in miRNA genes, such as hsa-miR-1273c, may be novel MSI targets for CRC, and mutations in noncoding regulatory regions of MRE11, BAX (BaxΔ2), and HSP110 (HSP110ΔE9) may affect the efficiency of chemotherapy. Thus, analyses of MSI and its related molecular alterations in cancers are increasingly relevant in clinical settings, and MSI is a useful screening marker for identifying patients with Lynch syndrome and a prognostic factor for chemotherapeutic interventions. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the pathogenesis of MSI and focus on genome-wide analyses that indicate the potential use of MSI and related alterations as biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets.