Posterolateral and Posteromedial Corner Injuries of the Knee
ABSTRACT Posterolateral (PLC) and posteromedial (PMC) corners of the knee represent complex anatomic regions because of intricate soft tissue and osseous relationships in small areas. Concise knowledge of these relationships is necessary before approaching their evaluation at imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging offers an accurate imaging diagnostic tool to establish normal anatomy and diagnose and characterize soft tissue and osseous injury. It is important to carefully evaluate the PLC and PMC structures on magnetic resonance imaging before planned surgical intervention to avoid potential complications resulting from occult injury.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to investigate the distal insertions of the semimembranosus tendon with MR imaging, correlated with findings in cadavers. Four fresh cadaveric specimens were studied with 3-T MR imaging. Sequences included proton density (PD) sequences (TE, 13; TR, 4957; FOV, 170 × 170; matrix, 424 × 413; NA, 2; slice thickness, 2.5 mm) in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes and 3D fast field echo (FFE) sequences (TR 9.4; TE 6.9; FOV, 159 × 105; matrix, 200 × 211; NA, 2; slice thickness, 0.57 mm). One specimen was dissected and three specimens were sectioned with a bandsaw in the axial, coronal, and sagittal plane. The sections were photographed and correlated with MR images. To standardize the analysis, the semimembranosus muscle and tendon were assessed at seven levels for the axial sections, and at three levels for the coronal and sagittal sections. Anatomic dissection revealed six insertions of the distal semimembranosus tendon: direct arm, anterior arm, posterior oblique ligament extension, oblique popliteal ligament extension, distal tibial expansion (popliteus aponeurosis), and meniscal arm. Axial MR images showed five of six insertions: direct arm, anterior arm, oblique popliteal ligament extension, posterior oblique ligament extension, and distal tibial expansion. Sagittal MR images showed four of six insertions: direct arm, anterior arm, oblique popliteal ligament arm, and distal tibial expansion. Sagittal MR images were ideal for showing the direct arm insertion, but were less optimal than the axial images for showing the other insertions. The anterior arm was seen but volume averaging was present with the gracilis tendon. Coronal MR images optimally revealed the anterior arm, although magic angle artifact was present at its posterior aspect. The common semimembranosus tendon and meniscal arm were also well depicted. The division in anterior arm, direct arm, and oblique popliteal ligament arm was poorly seen on coronal images due to volume averaging. Although the anatomy of the distal semimembranosus tendon is complex, six different semimembranosus insertions can be identified on routine proton density and FFE sequences at 3 T. Analysis of images at defined levels in the three imaging planes simplifies MR interpretation of the anatomy of the distal semimembranosus tendon.Skeletal Radiology 02/2014; 43(6). DOI:10.1007/s00256-014-1830-9 · 1.74 Impact Factor
Article: MRI of the Knee: What Do We Miss?[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a commonly used tool when evaluating patients with acute knee injury or chronic knee pain. Although it has shown excellent accuracy in diagnosing knee pathology, there remain many potential pitfalls and missed lesions. These can be secondary to inherent technical limitations or artifacts related to MR. Also subtle pathology can be overlooked, and anatomic structures and associated variants can be misinterpreted as tears. In this article, we will review some of the more common misses or pitfalls that occur in the setting of sport-related injuries.04/2014; 2(4). DOI:10.1007/s40134-014-0043-2
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the involvement of the iliotibial band (ITB), the anterolateral ligament (ALL), and the anterior arm of the biceps femoris in MRI-diagnosed Segond fracture and to evaluate other associated findings of Segond fracture. We retrospectively reviewed the MRI of 13 cases of Segond fracture. The studies included proton density-weighted, T2-weighted, and proton density-weighted with fat saturation images in the three planes. We studied 2 cadaveric specimens with emphasis on the ALL. One cadaveric specimen was dissected while the other was sectioned in the sagittal plane. The mean age of the patients was 36 years (range, 17-52). There were 7 men and 6 women. The mean size of the Segond bone fragment was 8 × 10 × 2 mm. The distance from the tibia varied from 2 to 6 mm. Associated findings included anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear (n = 13), medial collateral ligament (MCL) tear (n = 8), meniscocapsular tear of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (n = 5), and posterolateral corner involvement (n = 4). Bone marrow edema involved the mid-lateral femoral condyle and the posterior tibial plateau on both the medial and the lateral side. Edema at the Segond area was seen, but was limited. Fibular head edema was also seen. The ITB (11 out of 13) and ALL (10 out of 13) inserted on the Segond bone fragment. The anterior arm of the biceps tendon did not insert on the Segond fracture. Associated findings of Segond fracture include ACL tear, MCL tear, medial meniscus tear, and posterolateral corner injury. Both the ITB and the ALL may be involved in the Segond avulsion. The anterior arm of the biceps femoris tendon is not involved.Skeletal Radiology 12/2014; 44(3). DOI:10.1007/s00256-014-2044-x · 1.74 Impact Factor