Long-term seizure, cognitive, and psychiatric outcome following trans-middle temporal gyms amygdalohippocampectomy and standard temporal lobectomy Clinical article
ABSTRACT Object Previous comparisons of standard temporal lobectomy (STL) and selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SelAH) have been limited by inadequate long-term follow-up, variable definitions of favorable outcome, and inadequate consideration of psychiatric comorbidities. Methods The authors performed a retrospective analysis of seizure, cognitive, and psychiatric outcomes in a noncontemporaneous cohort of 69 patients with unilateral refractory temporal lobe epilepsy and MRI evidence of mesial temporal sclerosis after either an STL or an SelAH and examined seizure, cognitive, and psychiatric outcomes. Results The mean duration of follow-up for STL was 9.7 years (range 1-18 years), and for trans-middle temporal gyrus SelAH (mtg-SelAH) it was 6.85 years (range 1-15 years). There was no significant difference in seizure outcome when "favorable" was defined as time to loss of Engel Class I or II status; better seizure outcome was seen in the STL group when "favorable" was defined as time to loss of Engel Class IA status (p = 0.034). Further analysis revealed a higher occurrence of seizures solely during attempted medication withdrawal in the mtg-SelAH group than in the STL group (p = 0.016). The authors found no significant difference in the effect of surgery type on any cognitive and most psychiatric variables. Standard temporal lobectomy was associated with significantly higher scores on assessment of postsurgical paranoia (p = 0.048). Conclusions Overall, few differences in seizure, cognitive, and psychiatric outcome were found between STL and mtg-SelAH on long-term follow-up. Longer exposure to medication side effects after mtg-SelAH may adversely affect quality of life but is unlikely to cause additional functional impairment. In patients with high levels of presurgical psychiatric disease, mtg-SelAH may be the preferred surgery type.
Article: Editorial: Seizure surgery.Journal of Neurosurgery 04/2013; DOI:10.3171/2013.1.JNS121886 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epilepsy is a debilitating neurological disorder affecting approximately 1 % of the world's population. Drug-resistant focal epilepsies are potentially surgically remediable. Although epilepsy surgery is dramatically underutilized among medically refractory patients, there is an expanding collection of evidence supporting its efficacy which may soon compel a paradigm shift. Of note is that a recent randomized controlled trial demonstrated that early resection leads to considerably better seizure outcomes than continued medical therapy in patients with pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy. In the present review, we provide a timely update of seizure freedom rates and predictors in resective epilepsy surgery, organized by the distinct pathological entities most commonly observed. Class I evidence, meta-analyses, and individual observational case series are considered, including the experiences of both our institution and others. Overall, resective epilepsy surgery leads to seizure freedom in approximately two thirds of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy and about one half of individuals with focal neocortical epilepsy, although only the former observation is supported by class I evidence. Two common modifiable predictors of postoperative seizure freedom are early operative intervention and, in the case of a discrete lesion, gross total resection. Evidence-based practice guidelines recommend that epilepsy patients who continue to have seizures after trialing two or more medication regimens should be referred to a comprehensive epilepsy center for multidisciplinary evaluation, including surgical consideration.Neurosurgical Review 02/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10143-014-0527-9 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epilepsy surgery is a standard treatment option for medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) and anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) are two of the standard surgical procedures in these cases. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients treated with SAH via a modified transsylvian approach in our epilepsy center between 2008 and 2011, and we analyzed the impact of adjacent procedure-related infarctions on seizure outcome in these patients. Infarctions were detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within the first week postoperatively and by a second MRI 9 months after surgical intervention. Neuropsychological testing was performed preoperatively. Evaluation of seizure outcome and postoperative neuropsychological testing were conducted approximately 1 year after epilepsy surgery. Correlative clinical data were analyzed by retrospective chart review. The postoperative MRI revealed temporal infarctions in 47.9% (n = 23/48) and frontal infarctions in 10.4% (n = 5/48) of the patients. These vascular events were asymptomatic in terms of focal neurologic deficits. Of the patients, 68.5% (n = 37/54) were free of disabling seizures (Engel class I) 1 year after the procedure. Patients with temporal infarctions were significantly more often free of disabling seizures (Engel class I, p = 0.046) than patients without temporal infarctions. Neuropsychological testing indicated a deterioration in verbal memory after SAH in patients with infarctions on the language-lateralized hemisphere compared to patients without infarction (p = 0.011). All other tested neuropsychological categories showed no significant differences between patients with or without infarctions. Our results indicate a surprisingly high number of procedure-related temporal infarctions after transsylvian SAH. Hence, the volume of nonfunctional "eliminated" tissue is enlarged unintentionally, which is a possible explanation for better seizure outcome in these patients. This result supports the notion that ATL is the favorable procedure for temporal lobe epilepsy compared to SAH in the nondominant hemisphere, as neuropsychological deficits are rarely to be expected. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here.Epilepsia 02/2014; 55(5). DOI:10.1111/epi.12556 · 4.58 Impact Factor