Unintentional drowning in northern Iran: a population-based study.
ABSTRACT The Iranian Ministry of Health documented that about 1500 people died from drowning annually in Iran between years 2000 and 2001. This study is a descriptive, retrospective, population-based analysis of 342 unintentional drowning deaths occurring to residents and tourists in Guilan and Mazandran Provinces in Iran over a 1-year period (2005-2006), using multiple data sources. The findings from this study demonstrate that the drowning rate for residents of the study population, 4.24 per 100,000, is much higher than drowning rates for populations in developed economies in Europe. Risk factors for drowning in the study populations include male gender, young age, and swimming in unsupervised areas. Drownings occurred most frequently in rivers, followed by canals and lakes. While much more remains to be done to investigate the problems associated with drowning deaths and injuries in Iran, the information obtained from this study can help point the way to targeted interventions.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine possible associations between some prognostic factors and drowning outcome. There were 47 drowning victims during the study period, of whom 39 (83%) survived and 8 (17%) died. All deaths occurred in children aged under 5 including 7 (87.5%) male and 1 (12.5%) female victims. Seven (87.5%) were Iranian and only one (12.5%) was from Afghanistan. Absence of vital signs at hospital arrival, need for resuscitation, GCS < 5 and acidosis all were associated with adverse outcome with a statistical significance (P < 0.05), but hypothermia was the only idependent predictor of poor outcome (OR 13.7; 95% CI 2.27 to 82.7 , P = 0.003). Since prognostic factors do not predict outcome with 100% accuracy, performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation at the scene and continuing it in the hospital can provide higher chances of recovery for the children.The Medical journal of Malaysia 08/2011; 66(3):187-90.
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ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the feasibility of a drowning intervention package in northern Islamic Republic of Iran. A quasi-experimental design used pre- and post-observations among residents and tourists in water-recreation beach areas of intervention and control regions by the Caspian Sea and in residents near the Caspian Sea coastline. The fatal drowning rate in the studied resident population in the provinces fell from 4.24 per 100 000 residents at baseline to 3.04 per 100 000 residents at endline. The risk of death from drowning in the intervention areas in the water-recreation area was greater during the pre-intervention (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.66–2.01) than the implementation period (OR = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.15–0.37). The risk of drowning can be reduced by implementing increased supervision and raising community awareness.Eastern Mediterranean health journal = La revue de santé de la Méditerranée orientale = al-Majallah al-ṣiḥḥīyah li-sharq al-mutawassiṭ 07/2013; 19(7).
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ABSTRACT: Background: Drowning is a serious but neglected health problem in low-and middleincome countries. Objectives: To describe the effectiveness of drowning prevention program on the reduction of drowning mortality rates in rural settings at the north of Iran, and guide its replication elsewhere. Patients and Methods: This interventional design included pre- and post-intervention observations in the rural area of the Caspian Sea coastline without a comparison community. Cross-sectional data were collected at pre- and post-intervention phases. Outcome evaluation was based on a four-year period (March 2005-March 2009) utilizing drowning registry data for the north of Iran. Results: The implementation program increased the rate of membership in an organization responsible for promoting safety in high risk areas near the Caspian Sea. Compared to a WHO standardized population, drowning incidence in rural areas of the study demonstrated a continuous decrease in age-specific drowning rate among the oldest victims with a gradual decline during the implementation. In the study area, the epidemiological aspects of the study population were exposed and contributing factors were highlighted. Conclusions: This study showed that the promotion of passive interventions had a greater effect on drowning rate than that of active interventions.Archives of Trauma Research ... 10/2012;