Unintentional drowning in northern Iran: a population-based study.
ABSTRACT The Iranian Ministry of Health documented that about 1500 people died from drowning annually in Iran between years 2000 and 2001. This study is a descriptive, retrospective, population-based analysis of 342 unintentional drowning deaths occurring to residents and tourists in Guilan and Mazandran Provinces in Iran over a 1-year period (2005-2006), using multiple data sources. The findings from this study demonstrate that the drowning rate for residents of the study population, 4.24 per 100,000, is much higher than drowning rates for populations in developed economies in Europe. Risk factors for drowning in the study populations include male gender, young age, and swimming in unsupervised areas. Drownings occurred most frequently in rivers, followed by canals and lakes. While much more remains to be done to investigate the problems associated with drowning deaths and injuries in Iran, the information obtained from this study can help point the way to targeted interventions.
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ABSTRACT: Risk-factor research and prevention programs targeting drowning deaths in children have been well developed in industrialized countries, but little research has been undertaken in developing countries where the majority of drowning deaths occur. We conducted an epidemiological study to describe the sociodemographic characteristics, drowning circumstances, and medical service in drowning deaths of children in Xiamen city and suburbs, People's Republic of China. Material and Drowning deaths in 1-14-year-old children between 2001 and 2005 were identified using death certificates. Parents of each case were interviewed face to face about the sociodemographics of the family and child, the drowning event, and medical care received. Mortalities were calculated using census data for urban and rural areas, and Poisson regression was used to evaluate confounding effects and interactions of several major risk factors for drowning death. Of 67 drowning deaths identified, 52 (77.6%) were males. A higher proportion of deaths were in children aged 5-9 years (40.3%) and 10-14 years (40.3%). The drowning mortality per 100 000 population was 5.84 in rural areas and 0.75 in urban areas. Drowning events occurred most commonly during the summer months (56.7% from June to August), during the hours of 13:00-17:59 (62.7%), and in natural or man-made bodies of water (eg, ponds, ditches, construction sites, and wells). None of the children were proficient swimmers, the majority of drowning events (88.1%) occurred in the absence of adult supervision, and 86.6% children died at the scene without any medical care. Results from muiltivariable Poisson regression analysis indicated that 10-14-year-old boys were at the highest risk of drowning deaths in this area. Discussion and Drowning deaths in children in Xiamen city and suburbs follow trends that are markedly different from patterns observed in other countries. Different prevention strategies may be required for preventing child drowning deaths in Xiamen and other developing regions.Injury Prevention 11/2007; 13(5):339-43. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this report we describe the case of a 42-year-old woman who experienced an episode of near drowning during recreational swimming. A diagnosis of Andersen-Tawil syndrome was made based on the patient's dysmorphic features, characteristic T-U-wave patterns and ventricular arrhythmias. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a swimming-triggered cardiac event in a patient with Andersen-Tawil syndrome.International journal of cardiology 10/2006; 112(2):e45-7. · 7.08 Impact Factor