Unintentional drowning in northern Iran: a population-based study.
ABSTRACT The Iranian Ministry of Health documented that about 1500 people died from drowning annually in Iran between years 2000 and 2001. This study is a descriptive, retrospective, population-based analysis of 342 unintentional drowning deaths occurring to residents and tourists in Guilan and Mazandran Provinces in Iran over a 1-year period (2005-2006), using multiple data sources. The findings from this study demonstrate that the drowning rate for residents of the study population, 4.24 per 100,000, is much higher than drowning rates for populations in developed economies in Europe. Risk factors for drowning in the study populations include male gender, young age, and swimming in unsupervised areas. Drownings occurred most frequently in rivers, followed by canals and lakes. While much more remains to be done to investigate the problems associated with drowning deaths and injuries in Iran, the information obtained from this study can help point the way to targeted interventions.
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ABSTRACT: Drowning is a serious but neglected health problem in low-and middle-income countries. To describe the effectiveness of drowning prevention program on the reduction of drowning mortality rates in rural settings at the north of Iran, and guide its replication elsewhere. This interventional design included pre- and post-intervention observations in the rural area of the Caspian Sea coastline without a comparison community. Cross-sectional data were collected at pre- and post-intervention phases. Outcome evaluation was based on a four-year period (March 2005-March 2009) utilizing drowning registry data for the north of Iran. The implementation program increased the rate of membership in an organization responsible for promoting safety in high risk areas near the Caspian Sea. Compared to a WHO standardized population, drowning incidence in rural areas of the study demonstrated a continuous decrease in age-specific drowning rate among the oldest victims with a gradual decline during the implementation. In the study area, the epidemiological aspects of the study population were exposed and contributing factors were highlighted. This study showed that the promotion of passive interventions had a greater effect on drowning rate than that of active interventions.Archives of trauma research. 10/2012; 1(3):112-7.
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ABSTRACT: A household survey was conducted to determine the epidemiological characteristics of injuries among people living in Tehran, the mega capital of Iran. Using cluster random sampling in April 2007, survey was conducted seeking information about injuries occurred within families in past Persian year. All injury patterns and causes were classified according to ICD-10 and analysed using SPSS version 16. Out of 9173 household participants, 765 ones (8.3%) had injuries during the past Persian year, frequently open wounds and burns with a male to female ratio of 0.54 : 1. They occurred mostly due to 'exposure to the inanimate mechanical forces', followed by 'contact with heat or hot substances' and 'falls'. The common locations were home, and then streets. Approximately 15% of injuries required medical attention and the incidence rate was 175.5 per 10,000 person-year with male to female ratio of 2.37 : 1. They were frequently fractures and open wounds and mostly associated with falls and transport accidents that had been transpired on streets or at workplace. This study evidences the high rate of injuries in Tehran city and prevention priorities should be given to traffic and home injuries.International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion 04/2014; · 0.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: To evaluate the present status of blood utilization and develop practice guidelines in teaching hospitals in Northern Iran. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the amount of blood prepared and used preoperatively for 11 elective procedures, from March 2010 to March 2011 in teaching hospitals in Northern Iran. Study variables included the crossmatch transfusion ratio, the transfusion index and transfusion probability. The crossmatch transfusion ratio and the transfusion index were also calculated for each type of elective surgery performed during the study period. Results: During the study period, 5981 units of blood were crossmatched for 1970 cases. Out of these1835 units of blood were transfused which means only 31% of blood was utilized while 69% was not needed. The overall crossmatch transfusion ratio for 11 procedures was 31.1 and many procedures were found to have a high transfusion ratio and a low transfusion index. Conclusion: The introduction of maximum surgical blood-order schedule will lead to a reduction of blood outdating and crossmatch workload. Although routine cross match seems necessary for two elective surgical procedures (coronary artery bypass graft and hysterectomy); in vast majority of elective surgical procedures type and antibody screening is recommended. Keywords: Blood, transfusion, crossmatch, ratio, probability, index.IJBC. 10/2013; 6(1):27.