Unintentional drowning in northern Iran: a population-based study.
ABSTRACT The Iranian Ministry of Health documented that about 1500 people died from drowning annually in Iran between years 2000 and 2001. This study is a descriptive, retrospective, population-based analysis of 342 unintentional drowning deaths occurring to residents and tourists in Guilan and Mazandran Provinces in Iran over a 1-year period (2005-2006), using multiple data sources. The findings from this study demonstrate that the drowning rate for residents of the study population, 4.24 per 100,000, is much higher than drowning rates for populations in developed economies in Europe. Risk factors for drowning in the study populations include male gender, young age, and swimming in unsupervised areas. Drownings occurred most frequently in rivers, followed by canals and lakes. While much more remains to be done to investigate the problems associated with drowning deaths and injuries in Iran, the information obtained from this study can help point the way to targeted interventions.
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ABSTRACT: The study describes the epidemiology and characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in Northwest Iran between 2007 and 2009 using multiple data sources including records of the main provider of emergency medical transportation, death certificate reports of the Legal Medicine Organization and through household surveys. A total of 1005 people were diagnosed with non-fatal CO poisoning. Ninety deaths were confirmed due to CO exposure. The ratio of unintentional CO-related poisoning cases in relation to all poisonings was 17.6%. Non-fatal CO poisoning was higher in females and adults aged 25-44 year olds, whereas the death rate was highest for those over 64 years. Domestic gas appliances were involved in 98% of non-fatal incidents and in all fatal poisonings, with gas water heaters (59.2%) and free-standing heaters (25.3%) being the most common causes of CO exposure. The main mechanisms of poisoning were faulty installations and defective devices. The main locations of incidents were the bathroom (48%) and living room (32%). Only 19% of the households reported that they were aware of the hazards of CO exposure before the incident, and no household reported having a CO detector at the time of the poisoning. The results suggest that interventions should be targeted at home environments and focus on at-risk groups such as women and elderly people. Setting stricter standards and environmental legislations and promotion of public awareness against the dangers of CO exposure are important considerations for overcoming this public health problem.International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion 06/2011; 18(4):313-20. · 0.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aims: The goal of this research project was to explore circumstances surrounding each drowning death occurring to children and adolescents ages 0-17 in Sweden during the years 1998-2007. Methods: Records from the National Board of Forensic Medicine (NBFM) and other sources were analysed. We collected information on children's personal characteristics (sex, age, ethnic background, weight, height, physical condition, and pre-existing health conditions) and the circumstances of deaths (time and place of occurrence, type of drowning, resuscitation efforts and medical care given, for example). We also collected information on prevention factors: the physical environment, adult supervision, whether or not the child could swim, and if the child was using a personal flotation device at the time of death. Results: Our analysis showed that 109 children had drowned in Sweden during the study period - of this group, 96 had died from unintentional causes. Children from immigrant backgrounds, particularly with families coming from the Middle East and Iran, were inordinately represented in the group of victims who had died from unintentional drowning deaths. Other risk factors included: coming from a single parent-headed family, alcohol use by older victims and a lack of ability to swim. Conclusions: Prevention efforts to prevent drowning in the future should focus on preventing alcohol use by young bathers; better fencing around swimming sites; improved coverage of swimming lessons to all children in Sweden, especially children from immigrant families; more education on drowning risks for single parents; and better awareness by adults on the need for constant supervision of children and adolescents in and near water.Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 01/2013; · 1.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In Iran and many other low- and middle-income countries, few studies have been carried out in order to assess which cost analysis methods should be undertaken at the household and community level in relation to incidences of drowning. In this study, we have attempted to develop a model for estimating the impact of the economic burden that drowning and near drowning events incur for victims’ families in the Guilan province in the north of Iran by using an incidence approach. During the financial year of March 2007 to 2008, the following cost-related aspects of drowning episodes were evaluated: (note: main cost elements were income adjusted by family and years) medical costs, productivity loss costs and death costs. A total of 137 drowning fatalities and 104 near drowning incidents were recorded. Males in the age span of 10–29 years constitute a majority of the epidemiology and economy data. When the number of variables included in cost analysis was expanded, the estimated burden of economic duress increased dramatically; however, drowning cost for one drowned victim was equivalent to 17 times the country’s gross domestic product(GDP) per capital. Identification of injured person-based costs in this study will enable development of more effective prevention programs and provide indicators of other costs related to drowning episodes such as property damage and the impact of these accidents on community services and the public health care system.Ocean & Coastal Management 03/2011; 54(3):250–255. · 1.60 Impact Factor