Article

Unintentional drowning in northern Iran: A population-based study

Division of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Science, Krolinska Institutet, Norrbacka, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.
Accident; analysis and prevention (Impact Factor: 1.65). 12/2008; 40(6):1977-81. DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2008.08.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Iranian Ministry of Health documented that about 1500 people died from drowning annually in Iran between years 2000 and 2001. This study is a descriptive, retrospective, population-based analysis of 342 unintentional drowning deaths occurring to residents and tourists in Guilan and Mazandran Provinces in Iran over a 1-year period (2005-2006), using multiple data sources. The findings from this study demonstrate that the drowning rate for residents of the study population, 4.24 per 100,000, is much higher than drowning rates for populations in developed economies in Europe. Risk factors for drowning in the study populations include male gender, young age, and swimming in unsupervised areas. Drownings occurred most frequently in rivers, followed by canals and lakes. While much more remains to be done to investigate the problems associated with drowning deaths and injuries in Iran, the information obtained from this study can help point the way to targeted interventions.

1 Follower
 · 
817 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study highlights the socio-demographics and death circumstances of victims of fatal road traffic injuries (RTIs) in one Iranian province. A representative sample of cases was selected from a national register and interviews were conducted with the victims' family members. The study shows that there is a strong association between victim attributes (e.g. sex, age, occupation, education or marital status) and category of road-user. Although men are over-represented in all categories, women die above all as car passengers or pedestrians. Deaths of vulnerable road-users are more frequent among the younger and older age groups. Two-thirds of all deaths occurred before arrival at the hospital and 11% of the victims received ambulance transport. The patterns of fatal RTIs observed in the province differ somewhat from the rest of Iran and other low- and middle-income countries. Not only pre- but also post-crash counter-measures could help save lives in the region.
    International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion 09/2009; 16(3):119-26. DOI:10.1080/17457300903023980 · 0.67 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Descriptive epidemiological study has shown that drowning is a problem health in low and middle income countries. To analyze records of drowning deaths from two injury registry systems, to ascertain a true estimate of drowning-mortality, it can help to follow up drowning prevention policy. This study uses capture-recapture methods to arrive at a more accurate estimate of the number of drowning events occurring over a one-year period in Guilan and Mazandran Provinces, in northern Iran. Records from the Iran's Forensic Medical System and Death Registry System were compared, using five matching approaches based on various combinations of the following variables: gender, place of drowning, date of death, victim age, name, region of residence, and/or place of residence. The results revealed that the estimated number of drowning cases in the study population is much higher than official figures, ranging from 5.26 to 8.25 per 100,000 residents compared to the national figure of 4.5 per 100,000. The completeness of Death Registry System records for drowning was 70% of corrected estimates while the completeness of records from Forensic Medicine was 54.4%. We conclude that the use of capture-recapture methodology may provide better accuracy in measuring drowning events. This method may also help reduce bias in the estimate of incidence rates and comparison of different populations.
    Health Policy 10/2010; 100(2-3):290-6. DOI:10.1016/j.healthpol.2010.09.005 · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In Iran and many other low- and middle-income countries, few studies have been carried out in order to assess which cost analysis methods should be undertaken at the household and community level in relation to incidences of drowning. In this study, we have attempted to develop a model for estimating the impact of the economic burden that drowning and near drowning events incur for victims’ families in the Guilan province in the north of Iran by using an incidence approach. During the financial year of March 2007 to 2008, the following cost-related aspects of drowning episodes were evaluated: (note: main cost elements were income adjusted by family and years) medical costs, productivity loss costs and death costs. A total of 137 drowning fatalities and 104 near drowning incidents were recorded. Males in the age span of 10–29 years constitute a majority of the epidemiology and economy data. When the number of variables included in cost analysis was expanded, the estimated burden of economic duress increased dramatically; however, drowning cost for one drowned victim was equivalent to 17 times the country’s gross domestic product(GDP) per capital. Identification of injured person-based costs in this study will enable development of more effective prevention programs and provide indicators of other costs related to drowning episodes such as property damage and the impact of these accidents on community services and the public health care system.
    Ocean & Coastal Management 03/2011; 54(3):250–255. DOI:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.12.004 · 1.77 Impact Factor