Neuropsychologic impairment in bilateral cerebral palsy.
ABSTRACT The lower-than-average cognitive performance of individuals with bilateral cerebral palsy found in previous studies does not always refer to an abnormal performance or clinically significant impairment. We aimed to establish the percentage of persons with bilateral cerebral palsy who present neuropsychologic impairment, and its relationship to perinatal data and motor signs. Forty children, adolescents, and adults (age range, 6-38 years; 15 females and 25 males) with bilateral cerebral palsy were neuropsychologically assessed. Vocabulary was impaired in 85% of participants, language comprehension in 13-48%, visuoperceptual abilities in 60%, visuospatial abilities in 90%, short-term memory in 21-58%, declarative memory in 47-67%, and praxis comprehension in 20%, with executive deficits in 58-74%. Perinatal data (intrauterine growth and birth weight) contributed to explaining memory impairment. Among cerebral palsy subtypes (spastic, mixed, and dyskinetic), forms of impairment differed only in short-term verbal memory. No persons with dyskinetic cerebral palsy experienced impairment in immediate memory or working visual memory. We conclude that visuospatial deficit is the most frequent impairment in people with bilateral cerebral palsy. Moreover, short-term memory impairment seems sensitive to perinatal complications, and differs among bilateral cerebral palsy subtypes.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate color perception thresholds and relate them to the degree of motor impairment in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP).Behavioral and brain functions : BBF. 06/2014; 10(1):22.
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ABSTRACT: Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common motor disability in childhood (2 to 3 per 1000 live births), and is frequently accompanied by cognitive impairments and behavioural problems. Children with CP are at increased risk of attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)) including working memory deficits. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate if cognitive training may improve working memory in children with CP.Methods/Designs: The study is an investigator-blinded, randomized controlled trial with a stepped-wedge design that will include 115 schoolchildren with CP. Eligible for participation are children with CP, aged 7 to 15 years, who are able to follow instructions and handle a computer mouse. Exclusion criteria are the presence of photosensitive epilepsy, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level V (most severe CP) (Phys Ther 80: 974-985, 2000) and severe visual or hearing impairments. Following assessment of eligibility and baseline cognitive assessment the participants will be randomized to either cognitive working memory training or treatment-as-usual ('control group'). The intervention is a computer-based working memory training program consisting of 25 daily sessions to be performed over a 5 to 6-week period at home. A neuropsychological assessment will be performed before and 4 to 6 weeks after completed training. When the latter assessment has been completed in the intervention group, the 'control group' will start on the same training program. Both groups will meet for a final neuropsychological assessment six months after completed training by an examiner unaware of group adherence.Trials. 07/2014; 15(1):269.
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ABSTRACT: Standard intelligence tests such as the WPPSI-III have limitations when testing children with motor impairment. This study aimed to determine the proportion of children with cerebral palsy with sufficient verbal and motor skills to complete the WPPSI-III, to determine their comparative ability to complete tasks with and without a significant motor component, and to investigate short forms of the WPPSI-III as alternatives. Participants were 78 of 235 eligible 4-5 year old children with cerebral palsy resident in the Australian state of Victoria. Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), and Full-scale IQ (FSIQ) were determined using the WPPSI-III. Initial screening for pointing and verbal abilities determined which tests were attempted. The impact of speed was investigated by comparing scores on the Block Design subtest with and without an imposed time limit. FSIQ scores were calculated from two short forms of the WPPSI-III and compared to the full form. On screening, 16 children had inadequate pointing (14) and verbal abilities (2). FSIQ was obtained in 62 (82%) children. Strong associations were seen between completion of the entire test battery and topographical pattern, level of manual ability and level of gross motor function. Scores on subtests requiring manual ability were depressed relative to other scores. Children performed better using short forms of the WPPSI-III and, for a minority, when time limits were disregarded. In summary, children with cerebral palsy often lack the fine and gross motor skills necessary to complete the WPPSI-III, scoring relatively poorly on tasks requiring a fine motor response. Using short-form estimations of FSIQ comprised of subtests without a significant fine motor component has the potential to increase a child's FSIQ by approximately 5 points. These findings have important clinical implications when assessing a child with both motor and cognitive limitations.Research in developmental disabilities. 07/2014; 35(10):2558-2567.