The occurrence of the psbS gene product in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and in other photosynthetic organisms and its correlation with energy quenching.
ABSTRACT To avoid photodamage, photosynthetic organisms have developed mechanisms to evade or dissipate excess energy. Lumen overacidification caused by light-induced electron transport triggers quenching of excited chlorophylls and dissipation of excess energy into heat. In higher plants participation of the PsbS protein as the sensor of low lumenal pH was clearly demonstrated. Although light-dependent energy quenching is a property of all photosynthetic organisms, large differences in amplitude and kinetics can be observed thus raising the question whether a single common mechanism is in action. We performed a detailed study of PsbS expression/accumulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and investigated its accumulation in other algae and plants. We showed that PsbS cannot be detected in Chlamydomonas under a wide range of growth conditions. Overexpression of the endogenous psbs gene showed that the corresponding protein could not be addressed to the thylakoid membranes. Survey of different unicellular green algae showed no accumulation of anti-PsbS reactive proteins differently from multicellular species. Nevertheless, some unicellular species exhibit high energy quenching activity, suggesting that a PsbS-independent mechanism is activated. By correlating growth habitat and PsbS accumulation in different species, we suggest that during the evolution the light environment has been a determinant factor for the conservation/loss of the PsbS function.
Dataset: Non-Photochemical Quenching in Cryptophyte Alga Rhodomonas salina Is Located in Chlorophyll a/c Antennae[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Photosynthesis uses light as a source of energy but its excess can result in production of harmful oxygen radicals. To avoid any resulting damage, phototrophic organisms can employ a process known as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), where excess light energy is safely dissipated as heat. The mechanism(s) of NPQ vary among different phototrophs. Here, we describe a new type of NPQ in the organism Rhodomonas salina, an alga belonging to the cryptophytes, part of the chromalveolate supergroup. Cryptophytes are exceptional among photosynthetic chromalveolates as they use both chlorophyll a/c proteins and phycobiliproteins for light harvesting. All our data demonstrates that NPQ in cryptophytes differs significantly from other chromalveolates – e.g. diatoms and it is also unique in comparison to NPQ in green algae and in higher plants: (1) there is no light induced xanthophyll cycle; (2) NPQ resembles the fast and flexible energetic quenching (qE) of higher plants, including its fast recovery; (3) a direct antennae protonation is involved in NPQ, similar to that found in higher plants. Further, fluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical characterization of isolated photosynthetic complexes suggest that NPQ in R. salina occurs in the chlorophyll a/c antennae but not in phycobiliproteins. All these results demonstrate that NPQ in cryptophytes represents a novel class of effective and flexible non-photochemical quenching. Copyright: ß 2012 Kaň a et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Article: Analysis of LhcSR3, a protein essential for feedback de-excitation in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In photosynthetic organisms, feedback dissipation of excess absorbed light energy balances harvesting of light with metabolic energy consumption. This mechanism prevents photodamage caused by reactive oxygen species produced by the reaction of chlorophyll (Chl) triplet states with O₂. Plants have been found to perform the heat dissipation in specific proteins, binding Chls and carotenoids (Cars), that belong to the Lhc family, while triggering of the process is performed by the PsbS subunit, needed for lumenal pH detection. PsbS is not found in algae, suggesting important differences in energy-dependent quenching (qE) machinery. Consistent with this suggestion, a different Lhc-like gene product, called LhcSR3 (formerly known as LI818) has been found to be essential for qE in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In this work, we report the production of two recombinant LhcSR isoforms from C. reinhardtii and their biochemical and spectroscopic characterization. We found the following: (i) LhcSR isoforms are Chl a/b- and xanthophyll-binding proteins, contrary to higher plant PsbS; (ii) the LhcSR3 isoform, accumulating in high light, is a strong quencher of Chl excited states, exhibiting a very fast fluorescence decay, with lifetimes below 100 ps, capable of dissipating excitation energy from neighbor antenna proteins; (iii) the LhcSR3 isoform is highly active in the transient formation of Car radical cation, a species proposed to act as a quencher in the heat dissipation process. Remarkably, the radical cation signal is detected at wavelengths corresponding to the Car lutein, rather than to zeaxanthin, implying that the latter, predominant in plants, is not essential; (iv) LhcSR3 is responsive to low pH, the trigger of non-photochemical quenching, since it binds the non-photochemical quenching inhibitor dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and increases its energy dissipation properties upon acidification. This is the first report of an isolated Lhc protein constitutively active in energy dissipation in its purified form, opening the way to detailed molecular analysis. Owing to its protonatable residues and constitutive excitation energy dissipation, this protein appears to merge both pH-sensing and energy-quenching functions, accomplished respectively by PsbS and monomeric Lhcb proteins in plants.PLoS Biology 01/2011; 9(1):e1000577. · 11.45 Impact Factor