Higher serum TSH in thyroid cancer patients occurs independent of age and correlates with extrathyroidal extension.
ABSTRACT It has previously been shown that higher serum TSH is associated with increased thyroid cancer incidence and advanced-stage disease. In the healthy adult population, mean TSH increases with age. As age over 45 years is a known prognostic indicator for thyroid cancer, it is important to know whether higher TSH in patients with thyroid cancer occurs independent of age.
To determine the relationship between higher TSH, cancer and age.
A retrospective cohort study.
A total of 1361 patients underwent thyroid surgery between May 1994 and December 2007 at a single institution. Of these patients, 954 had pathological data, preoperative TSH and complete surgical history available. Data were analysed in relation to age and TSH.
Mean TSH was significantly higher in cancer patients regardless of age < 45 years or >or= 45 years (P = 0.046 and P = 0.027, respectively). When examining age groups < 20, 20-44, 45-59 and >or= 60 years, there was a trend of rising mean TSH with age. Despite the rise in the benign subgroups, mean TSH was consistently higher in those with cancer vs. those without. On multivariate analysis, higher TSH was independently associated with cancer (P = 0.039) and pathological features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (P = 0.001) but not with age (P = 0.557). On multivariate analysis of high-risk features associated with poor prognosis, there was a significant association between higher TSH and extrathyroidal extension (P = 0.002), whereas there was no clear relationship with age, tumour size > 4 cm, and distant metastases.
Independent of age, thyroid cancer incidence correlates with higher TSH. Higher TSH is associated with extrathyroidal extension of disease.
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ABSTRACT: Mechanisms of invasion in thyroid cancer remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that signaling via the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) stimulates thyroid cancer cell invasion by altering the expression and cleavage of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Papillary and follicular carcinoma cell lines were treated with EGF, the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478, and the MMP inhibitors GM-6001 and Col-3. Flow cytometry was used to detect EGFR. In vitro invasion assays, gelatin zymography, and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR were used to assess the changes in invasive behavior and MMP expression and activation. All cell lines were found to overexpress functional EGFR. EGF stimulated invasion by thyroid cancer cells up to sevenfold (P<0.0001), a process that was antagonized completely by AG1478 and Col-3, partially by GM-6001, but not by the serine protease inhibitor aprotinin. EGF upregulated expression of MMP-9 (2.64- to 8.89-fold, P<0.0001) and membrane type-1 MMP (MT1-MMP, 1.97- to 2.67-fold, P<0.0001). This effect was blocked completely by AG1478 and partially by Col-3. The activation of MMP-2 paralleled MT1-MMP expression. We demonstrate that MMPs are critical effectors of invasion in the papillary and follicular thyroid cancer cell lines studied. Invasion is regulated by signaling through EGFR, an effect mediated by augmentation of gelatinase expression and activation. MMP inhibitors and growth factor antagonists may be effective tumoristatic agents for the treatment of aggressive thyroid carcinomas.Endocrine Related Cancer 01/2007; 13(4):1173-83. · 5.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that circulating concentrations of TSH, free T4, and free T3 are genetically regulated, but the genes responsible remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to identify genetic loci associated with these parameters. We performed a multipoint, nonparametric genome-wide linkage scan of 613 female dizygotic twin pairs. All subjects were euthyroid (TSH 0.4-4.0 mU/liter) with negative thyroid peroxidase antibodies and no history of thyroid disease. The genome scan comprised 737 microsatellite markers supplemented with dinucleotide markers. Data were analyzed using residualized thyroid hormone data after adjustment for age, smoking, and body mass index. Multipoint linkage analysis gave linkage peaks for free T4 on chromosome 14q13 and 18q21 [logarithm of odds (LOD) 2.4-3.2]; TSH on chromosomes 2q36, 4q32, and 9q34 (LOD 2.1-3.2); and free T3 on chromosomes 7q36, 8q22, and 18q21 (LOD 2.0-2.3). This study has identified eight genomic locations with linkage of LOD of 2.0 or greater. These results should enable targeted positional candidate and positional cloning studies to advance our understanding of genetic control of the pituitary-thyroid axis.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 07/2008; 93(9):3519-23. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in thyroid hormone metabolism may affect thyroid hormone bioactivity. We investigated the occurrence and possible effects of SNPs in the deiodinases (D1-D3), the TSH receptor (TSHR), and the T(3) receptor beta (TR beta) genes. SNPs were identified in public databases or by sequencing of genomic DNA from 15 randomly selected subjects (30 alleles). Genotypes for the identified SNPs were determined in 156 healthy blood donors and related to plasma T(4), free T(4), T(3), rT(3), and TSH levels. Eight SNPs of interest were identified, four of which had not yet been published. Three are located in the 3'-untranslated region: D1a-C/T (allele frequencies, C = 66%, T = 34%), D1b-A/G (A = 89.7%, G = 10.3%), and D3-T/G (T = 85.5%, G = 14.2%). Four are missense SNPs: D2-A/G (Thr92Ala, Thr = 61.2%, Ala = 38.8%), TSHRa-G/C (Asp36His, Asp = 99.4%, His = 0.6%), TSHRb-C/A (Pro52Thr, Pro = 94.2%, Thr = 5.8%), and TSHRc-C/G (Asp727Glu, Asp = 90.7%, Glu = 9.3%). One is a silent SNP: TR beta-T/C (T = 96.8%, C = 3.2%). D1a-T was associated in a dose-dependent manner with a higher plasma rT(3) [CC, 0.29 +/- 0.01; CT, 0.32 +/- 0.01; and TT, 0.34 +/- 0.02 nmol/liter (mean +/- SE); P = 0.017], a higher plasma rT(3)/T(4) (P = 0.01), and a lower T(3)/rT(3) (P = 0.003) ratio. The D1b-G allele was associated with lower plasma rT(3)/T(4) (P = 0.024) and with higher T(3)/rT(3) (P = 0.08) ratios. TSHRc-G was associated with a lower plasma TSH (CC, 1.38 +/- 0.07, vs. GC, 1.06 +/- 0.14 mU/liter; P = 0.04), and with lower plasma TSH/free T(4) (P = 0.06), TSH/T(3) (P = 0.06), and TSH/T(4) (P = 0.08) ratios. No associations with TSH and iodothyronine levels were found for the other SNPs. We have analyzed eight SNPs in five thyroid hormone pathway genes and found significant associations of three SNPs in two genes (D1, TSHR) with plasma TSH or iodothyronine levels in a normal population.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 07/2003; 88(6):2880-8. · 6.43 Impact Factor