The Impact of Maternal Obesity on the Incidence of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in High-Risk Term Pregnancies
ABSTRACT We investigated the impact of maternal obesity on pregnancy outcomes. Women with normal or obese body mass index (BMI) who delivered singleton infants at term were identified from a perinatal database. Rates of pregnancy complications and neonatal outcomes were compared between women with normal prepregnancy BMI (20 to 24.9 kg/m (2), N = 9171) and those with an obese prepregnancy BMI (> or = 30, N = 3744). Rates of pregnancy complications and neonatal outcomes were also evaluated by the level of obesity (obese [30 to 34.9 kg/m (2), N = 2106], severe obesity [35 to 39.9 kg/m (2), N = 953], and morbid obesity [> or = 40 kg/m (2), N = 685]). Rates of gestational diabetes (12.0% versus 3.7%, P < 0.001, odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 3.5 [3.0, 4.1]) and gestational hypertension (30.9% versus 9.0%, P < 0.001, odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 4.5 [4.1, 5.0]) were higher for obese versus normal BMI gravidas, respectively. Women with morbid or severe obesity had a greater incidence of gestational diabetes than women with an obese (30 to 34.9 kg/m (2)) or normal BMI (14.1%, 16.4%, 9.6%, and 3.7%, respectively; P < 0.05). The incidence of gestational hypertension increased with maternal BMI (9.0% normal, 25.5% obese, 33.7% severe, 43.4% morbid; all pairwise comparisons P < 0.05). Obese versus normal BMI was associated with more higher-level nursery admissions (8.2% versus 5.8%) and large-for-gestational age infants (12.3% versus 6.5%; P < 0.001). Obesity places a term pregnancy at risk for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: Objective. To determine a precise estimate for the contribution of maternal obesity to macrosomia. Data Sources. The search strategy included database searches in 2011 of PubMed, Medline (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid Medline, 1950-2011), and EMBASE Classic + EMBASE. Appropriate search terms were used for each database. Reference lists of retrieved articles and review articles were cross-referenced. Methods of Study Selection. All studies that examined the relationship between maternal obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) (pregravid or at 1st prenatal visit) and fetal macrosomia (birth weight ≥4000 g, ≥4500 g, or ≥90th percentile) were considered for inclusion. Tabulation, Integration, and Results. Data regarding the outcomes of interest and study quality were independently extracted by two reviewers. Results from the meta-analysis showed that maternal obesity is associated with fetal overgrowth, defined as birth weight ≥ 4000 g (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.92, 2.45), birth weight ≥4500 g (OR 2.77,95% CI 2.22, 3.45), and birth weight ≥90% ile for gestational age (OR 2.42, 95% CI 2.16, 2.72). Conclusion. Maternal obesity appears to play a significant role in the development of fetal overgrowth. There is a critical need for effective personal and public health initiatives designed to decrease prepregnancy weight and optimize gestational weight gain.BioMed Research International 12/2014; 2014:640291. DOI:10.1155/2014/640291 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives Overweight and obese women may be heavy users of in vitro fertilization (IVF) owing to obesity-related oligo-anovulation. The higher doses of gonadotropins required to achieve pregnancy in obese women may contribute to impaired placentation and the development of preeclampsia. This study was designed to assess the combined effect of high maternal body mass index (BMI) and IVF on risk of preeclampsia and to evaluate for an interaction between the two factors.Methods This is a hospital-based cohort study of 10,013 singleton pregnancies that delivered from 2001 to 2008 at a tertiary hospital in Montreal, Canada. The combined effect of high BMI and IVF on preeclampsia versus no risk factors was estimated in multivariate logistic regression models fitted with an interaction term between high BMI (> 25 or > 30 kg/m2) and IVF.ResultsIVF pregnancies in obese women had a considerably higher risk of preeclampsia than spontaneous nonobese pregnancies (OR 6.7, 95% CI 3.3-13.8; p interaction 0.03). IVF was not independently associated with preeclampsia (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3-1.4). Analyses were similar in subgroup analyses and in analyses correcting for bias.Conclusions High BMI is strongly associated with preeclampsia, and this risk is compounded in IVF pregnancies.Obesity 01/2015; 23(1). DOI:10.1002/oby.20896 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective The aim of the study was to examine pregnancy outcomes of healthy nulliparous women aged ≥ 40 years at delivery. Study Design The study included 53,480 nulliparous women aged 20 to 29 or ≥ 40 years delivering singleton infants, enrolled in a pregnancy risk assessment program between July 1, 2006, and August 1, 2011. Women reporting medical disorders, tobacco use, or conception with assistive reproductive technology were excluded. Data were grouped by body mass (obese or nonobese) and age (20-29 or ≥ 40 years). Pregnancy outcomes were compared within each body mass group for women aged 20 to 29 years versus ≥ 40 years and between obese and nonobese women aged ≥ 40 years. Results Within each body mass group, nulliparous women aged ≥ 40 years delivered at a significantly lower gestational age and had a greater incidence of cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, preterm birth, and both low and very low birth weight infants, compared with controls aged 20 to 29 years. For women aged ≥ 40 years, obesity was associated with higher rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Conclusion In healthy women, both advanced maternal age and obesity negatively influence pregnancy outcomes. Women who delay pregnancy until age 40+ years may modify their risk for cesarean section, preterm birth, and low-birth-weight infants by reducing their weight to nonobese levels before conception.American Journal of Perinatology 12/2013; DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1359716 · 1.60 Impact Factor