Actin co-sedimentation assay; for the analysis of protein binding to F-actin.
ABSTRACT The actin cytoskeleton within the cell is a network of actin filaments that allows the movement of cells and cellular processes, and that generates tension and helps maintains cellular shape. Although the actin cytoskeleton is a rigid structure, it is a dynamic structure that is constantly remodeling. A number of proteins can bind to the actin cytoskeleton. The binding of a particular protein to F-actin is often desired to support cell biological observations or to further understand dynamic processes due to remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. The actin co-sedimentation assay is an in vitro assay routinely used to analyze the binding of specific proteins or protein domains with F-actin. The basic principles of the assay involve an incubation of the protein of interest (full length or domain of) with F-actin, ultracentrifugation step to pellet F-actin and analysis of the protein co-sedimenting with F-actin. Actin co-sedimentation assays can be designed accordingly to measure actin binding affinities and in competition assays.
SourceAvailable from: Dustin E Bosch[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Entamoeba histolytica requires a dynamic actin cytoskeleton for intestinal and systemic pathogenicity. Diaphanous-related formins represent an important family of actin regulators that are activated by Rho GTPases. The E. histolytica genome encodes a large family of Rho GTPases and three diaphanous-related formins, of which EhFormin1 is known to regulate mitosis and cytokinesis in trophozoites. We demonstrate that EhFormin1 modulates actin polymerization through its formin homology 2 domain. Despite a highly divergent diaphanous autoinhibitory domain, EhFormin1 is autoinhibited by an N- and C-terminal intramolecular interaction but activated upon binding of EhRho1 to the N-terminal domain tandem. A crystal structure of the EhRho1·GTPγS-EhFormin1 complex illustrates an EhFormin1 conformation that diverges from mammalian mDia1 and lacks a secondary interaction with a Rho insert helix. The structural model also highlights residues required for specific recognition of the EhRho1 GTPase and suggests that the molecular mechanisms of EhFormin1 autoinhibition and activation differ from those of mammalian homologues.Biochemistry 10/2012; 51(44). DOI:10.1021/bi300954g · 3.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) pump activity is affected by the membrane protein concentration (Vanagas et al., Biochim Biophys Acta 1768:1641-1644, 2007). The results of this study provided evidence for the involvement of the actin cytoskeleton. In this study, we explored the relationship between the polymerization state of actin and its effects on purified PMCA activity. Our results show that PMCA associates with the actin cytoskeleton and this interaction causes a modulation of the catalytic activity involving the phosphorylated intermediate of the pump. The state of actin polymerization determines whether it acts as an activator or an inhibitor of the pump: G-actin and/or short oligomers activate the pump, while F-actin inhibits it. The effects of actin on PMCA are the consequence of direct interaction as demonstrated by immunoblotting and cosedimentation experiments. Taken together, these findings suggest that interactions with actin play a dynamic role in the regulation of PMCA-mediated Ca(2+) extrusion through the membrane. Our results provide further evidence of the activation-inhibition phenomenon as a property of many cytoskeleton-associated membrane proteins where the cytoskeleton is no longer restricted to a mechanical function but is dynamically involved in modulating the activity of integral proteins with which it interacts.Cell biochemistry and biophysics 11/2012; 66(1). DOI:10.1007/s12013-012-9467-6 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In prostate cancer (PCa) patients, the protein target for androgen deprivation and blockade therapies is androgen receptor (AR). AR interacts with many proteins that function to either co-activate or co-repress its activity. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is not found in normal prostatic epithelium, but is found in PCa, and may be an AR co-regulator protein. We investigated cell line-specific signatures and associations of endogenous AR and Cav-1 in six PCa cell lines of known androgen sensitivity: LNCaP (androgen sensitive); 22Rv1 (androgen responsive); PC3, DU145, and ALVA41 (androgen non-reliant); and RWPE1 (non-malignant). Protein and mRNA expression profiles were compared and electron microscopy used to identify cells with caveolar structures. For cell lines expressing both AR and Cav-1, knockdown techniques using small interfering RNA against AR or Cav-1 were used to test whether diminished expression of one affected the other. Co-sedimentation of AR and Cav-1 was used to test their association. A reporter assay for AR genomic activity was utilized following Cav-1 knockdown. AR-expressing LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells had low endogenous Cav-1 mRNA and protein. Cell lines that expressed little or no AR (DU145, PC3, ALVA41, and RWPE1) expressed high endogenous levels of Cav-1. AR knockdown in LNCaP cells had little effect on Cav-1, but Cav-1 knockdown inhibited AR expression and genomic activity. These data show endogenous AR and Cav-1 mRNA and protein expression is inversely related in PCa cells, with Cav-1 acting on the androgen/AR signaling axis possibly as an AR co-activator, demonstrated by diminished AR genomic activity following Cav-1 knockdown. Prostate. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.The Prostate 05/2014; 74(5). DOI:10.1002/pros.22767 · 3.57 Impact Factor