Calcium binding to the Ca-sensing receptor (CASR) expressed in thick ascending limb inhibits the Na,K,2Cl cotransporter, which decreases sodium reabsorption and secondarily decreases Ca reabsorption. CASR gene variants could influence blood pressure (BP) by affecting Na retention.
The objective of the study was to determine whether variations in CASR associated with BP in African-Americans, an ethnic group at high risk for hypertension.
Population- and family-based association studies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CASR with BP measured over the age range 5.6-25 yr (14 biannual visits per subject on average) were carried out. In a cross-sectional study where urinary Ca excretion had been measured, Ca excretion was used as an additional phenotype of CASR influence on Na,K,2Cl cotransporter activity.
Subjects were normotensive. In the longitudinal study, there were 223 subjects (mean age 14 yr) and 123 families (one or both parents provided a DNA sample); in the cross-sectional study, there were 106 subjects (mean age 23 yr) and 88 families.
Three SNPs in linkage disequilibrium associated with systolic BP at P < 0.005 (the significance threshold corrected for multiple comparisons) in the population-based longitudinal study. In the cross-sectional study, SNPs contained in the same linkage disequilibrium block associated with urinary Ca excretion in both population- and family-based association studies.
The findings suggest that in African-Americans, functional heterogeneity of the CASR in thick ascending limb may influence BP.
"Polymorphism in human CaR gene is associated with increased frequency of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death (März et al., 2007). Moreover , a recent study showed that common variations in the CaR are associated with blood pressure in young African Americans (Jung et al., 2009), suggesting the involvement of the CaR in the control of blood pressure. Although the authors suggest that the effect on blood pressure was through the CaR gene variants effect on sodium retention, further study is necessary. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calcium is a crucial second messenger in the cardiovascular system. However, calcium may also be an extracellular first messenger through a G-protein-coupled receptor that senses extracellular concentration (Ca(2+)(o)), the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR). The most prominent physiological function of the CaR is to maintain the extracellular Ca(2+) level in a very tight range by regulating the circulating levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH). This control over PTH and Ca(2+) levels is partially lost in patients suffering from primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Allosteric modulators of the CaR (calcimimetics) are the first drugs in their class to become available for clinical use and have been shown to successfully treat certain forms of primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. In addition, several studies suggest beneficial effects of calcimimetics on cardiovascular risk factors associated with hyperparathyroidism. Although a plethora of studies demonstrated the CaR in heart and blood vessels, exact roles of the receptor in the cardiovascular system still remain to be elucidated. However, several studies point toward a possibility that the CaR might be involved in the regulation of vascular tone. This review will summarize the current knowledge on the possible functions of the CaR and calcimimetics on blood pressure regulation.
British Journal of Pharmacology 03/2011; 164(3):884-93. DOI:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01317.x · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) is expressed in parathyroid hormone (PTH)-secreting cells of the parathyroid gland and cells lining the renal tubule. The activated CASR modulates intracellular signaling pathways altering PTH secretion and renal cation and water handling. Inherited abnormalities of the CASR gene give rise to a variety of disorders of mineral ion homeostasis. Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations cause familial (benign) hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) in which the lifelong mild hypercalcemia is generally asymptomatic. Homozygous inactivating mutations give rise to neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT) with extreme hypercalcemia and marked skeletal changes. Heterozygous activating mutations of the CASR cause autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH) that may be asymptomatic or present with seizures in the neonatal period or childhood or later in life. Phenocopies of FHH or ADH are due to circulating CASR inactivating or activating autoantibodies, respectively. The CASR is the target of small molecule allosteric modifiers, either activators, calcimimetics, or inhibitors, calcilytics.
Progress in molecular biology and translational science 01/2009; 89:31-95. DOI:10.1016/S1877-1173(09)89003-0 · 3.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) plays a major role in the maintenance of a physiological serum ionized calcium (Ca2+) concentration by regulating the circulating levels of parathyroid hormone. It was molecularly identified in 1993 by Brown et al. in the laboratory of Dr. Steven Hebert with an expression cloning strategy. Subsequent studies have demonstrated that the CaSR is highly expressed in the kidney, where it is capable of integrating signals deriving from the tubular fluid and/or the interstitial plasma. Additional studies elucidating inherited and acquired mutations in the CaSR gene, the existence of activating and inactivating autoantibodies, and genetic polymorphisms of the CaSR have greatly enhanced our understanding of the role of the CaSR in mineral ion metabolism. Allosteric modulators of the CaSR are the first drugs in their class to become available for clinical use and have been shown to treat successfully hyperparathyroidism secondary to advanced renal failure. In addition, preclinical and clinical studies suggest the possibility of using such compounds in various forms of hypercalcemic hyperparathyroidism, such as primary and lithium-induced hyperparathyroidism and that occurring after renal transplantation. This review addresses the role of the CaSR in kidney physiology and pathophysiology as well as current and in-the-pipeline treatments utilizing CaSR-based therapeutics.
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