Immunohistochemical staining for CDX-2, PDX-1, NESP-55, and TTF-1 can help distinguish gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors from pancreatic endocrine and pulmonary carcinoid tumors.
ABSTRACT Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (WDNET) of the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and lung are histologically similar. Thus, predicting the site of origin of a metastasis is not possible on morphologic grounds. Prior immunohistochemical studies of WDNET have yielded conflicting results, and pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor-1 (PDX-1) has not previously been evaluated in this context. We therefore analyzed the expression of CDX-2, PDX-1, TTF-1, and neuroendocrine secretory protein-55 (NESP-55), a recently described member of the chromogranin family, in primary and metastatic WDNET. In total, 64 gastrointestinal carcinoids (5 stomach; 5 duodenum; 31 ileum; 11 appendix; and 12 rectum); 39 pancreatic endocrine tumors (PET); and 20 pulmonary carcinoid tumors were studied. PET were positive for NESP-55 (16/39) and PDX-1 (11/39); 3/31 also showed heterogeneous positivity for CDX-2. Ileal carcinoids were exclusively positive for CDX-2 (30/31) and negative for all other markers. Appendiceal carcinoids were uniformly positive for CDX-2 (11/11). All rectal carcinoids were negative for CDX-2 and TTF-1; 2/12 were positive for PDX-1, and 1/12 for NESP-55. The gastric and duodenal carcinoids were only positive for PDX-1 (7/10). TTF-1 positivity was confined to pulmonary carcinoids (7/20); 1/20 was positive for NESP-55; and all were negative for CDX-2 and PDX-1. NESP-55 and PDX-1 positivity, in the presence of negative CDX-2 and TTF-1, was 97% specific for PET. The sensitivity and specificity of CDX-2 positivity for predicting an ileal primary, when PDX-1, NESP-55, and TTF-1 were negative, was 97% and 91%, respectively. TTF-1 positivity was confined to pulmonary carcinoids in our study but was present in only about a third of cases. A panel of these 4 markers may be useful in predicting the primary site of metastatic WDNET.
- SourceAvailable from: Annibale VersariJournal of endocrinological investigation 07/2014; · 1.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: the detection and diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is challenging. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has a significant role in the detection of NETs suspected from clinical manifestations or imaging techniques, as well as in their precise localization and cytological confirmation using EUS-Fine-needle aspiration-puncture (FNA). Objective: to assess the usefulness and precision of EUS-FNAP in the differential diagnosis and confirmation of NETs, in a retrospective review of our experience. Patients and methods: in a total of 55 patients with suspected NETs who underwent radial or sectorial EUS, 42 tumors were detected in 40 cases. EUS-FNA using a 22G needle was performed for 16 cases with suspected functional (hormonal disorders: 6 cases) and non-functional NETs (10 cases). Ki 67 or immunocytochemistry (ICC) testing was performed for all. There was confirmation in 9 cases (5 female and 4 male) with a mean age of 51 years (range: 41-81 years). All tumors were located in the pancreas except for one in the mediastinum and one in the rectum, with a mean size of 19 mm (range: 10-40 mm). Results: there were no complications attributable to FNA. Sensitivity was 100% and both precision and PPV were 89%, as a false positive result suggested a diagnosis with NET during cytology that surgery finally revealed to be a pancreatic pseudopapillary solid tumor. Conclusions: EUS-FNA with a 22G needle for NETs has high sensitivity and PPV at cytological confirmation with few complications.Revista espanola de enfermedades digestivas: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Patologia Digestiva 03/2011; 103(3):123-128. · 1.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A panel of immunohistochemical (IHC) stains frequently used to subclassify non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) includes napsin A, TTF-1, CK5/6, p40, and p63. The expression profiles of these stains in neuroendocrine tumors have not been systematically evaluated.American Journal of Clinical Pathology 09/2014; 142(3):320-4. · 2.88 Impact Factor