The CHRNE 1293insG founder mutation is a frequent cause of congenital myasthenia in North Africa.
ABSTRACT Mutations in various genes of the neuromuscular junction cause congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS). A single truncating mutation (epsilon1293insG) in the acetylcholine receptor epsilon subunit gene (CHRNE) was most often identified in CMS families originating from North Africa and was possibly a founder mutation.
Twenty-three families were studied with an early onset form of CMS and originating from Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, and Libya. Screening for the mutation epsilon1293insG was performed by direct sequencing. Haplotype analysis was done with 9 (CA)n repeat microsatellite markers and 6 SNPs flanking epsilon1293insG on chromosome 17p13-p12. Dating was calculated using the ESTIAGE method for rare genetic diseases.
The epsilon1293insG mutation was identified in 14 families (about 60% of the initial 23). The expression of the CMS in affected members of these families was relatively homogeneous, without fetal involvement or being life-threatening, with moderate hypotonia and oculobulbar involvement, mild and stable disease course, and good response to cholinesterase inhibitors. Haplotype analysis revealed a common conserved haplotype encompassing a distance of 63 kb. The estimated age of the founder event was at least 700 years.
These results strongly support the hypothesis that epsilon1293insG derives from an ancient single founder event in the North African population. Identification of founder mutations in isolated or inbred populations may have important implications in the context of molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling of patients and families by detection of heterozygous carriers.
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ABSTRACT: Congenital myasthenic syndromes are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of hereditary disorders affecting neuromuscular transmission. We have identified mutations within the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) epsilon-subunit gene underlying congenital myasthenic syndromes in nine patients (seven kinships) of Dutch origin. Previously reported mutations epsilon1369delG and epsilonR311Q were found to be common; epsilon1369delG was present on at least one allele in seven of the nine patients, and epsilonR311Q in six. Phenotypes ranged from relatively mild ptosis and external ophthalmoplegia to generalized myasthenia. The common occurrence of epsilonR311Q and epsilon1369delG suggests a possible founder for each of these mutations originating in North Western Europe, possibly in Holland. Knowledge of the ethnic or geographic origin within Europe of AChR deficiency patients can help in targeting genetic screening and it may be possible to provide a rapid genetic diagnosis for patients of Dutch origin by screening first for epsilonR311Q and epsilon1369delG.Journal of Neurology 07/2009; 256(10):1719-23. · 3.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Tunisia is a North African country of 10 million inhabitants. The native background population is Berber. However, throughout its history, Tunisia has been the site of invasions and migratory waves of allogenic populations and ethnic groups such as Phoenicians, Romans, Vandals, Arabs, Ottomans and French. Like neighbouring and Middle Eastern countries, the Tunisian population shows a relatively high rate of consanguinity and endogamy that favor expression of recessive genetic disorders at relatively high rates. Many factors could contribute to the recurrence of monogenic morbid trait expression. Among them, founder mutations that arise in one ancestral individual and diffuse through generations in isolated communities. Method We report here on founder mutations in the Tunisian population by a systematic review of all available data from PubMed, other sources of the scientific literature as well as unpublished data from our research laboratory. Results We identified two different classes of founder mutations. The first includes founder mutations so far reported only among Tunisians that are responsible for 30 genetic diseases. The second group represents founder haplotypes described in 51 inherited conditions that occur among Tunisians and are also shared with other North African and Middle Eastern countries. Several heavily disabilitating diseases are caused by recessive founder mutations. They include, among others, neuromuscular diseases such as congenital muscular dystrophy and spastic paraglegia and also severe genodermatoses such as dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and xeroderma pigmentosa. Conclusion This report provides informations on founder mutations for 73 genetic diseases either specific to Tunisians or shared by other populations. Taking into account the relatively high number and frequency of genetic diseases in the region and the limited resources, screening for these founder mutations should provide a rapid and cost effective tool for molecular diagnosis. Indeed, our report should help designing appropriate measures for carrier screening, better evaluation of diseases burden and setting up of preventive measures at the regional level.Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 08/2012; 7(1):52. · 5.83 Impact Factor