Hematoma Resolution as a Therapeutic Target The Role of Microglia/Macrophages
ABSTRACT No effective therapy is available for treating intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). One of several key components of brain damage after ICH is the neurotoxicity of blood products. Within hours to days after ICH, extravasated erythrocytes in the hematoma undergo lysis, releasing cytotoxic hemoglobin, heme, and iron, thereby initiating secondary processes, which negatively influence the viability of cells surrounding the hematoma. To offset this process, phagocytic cells, including the brain's microglia and hematogenous macrophages, phagocytose and then process extravasated erythrocytes before lysis and subsequent toxicity occurs. Therefore, we hypothesize that a treatment that stimulates phagocytosis will lead to faster removal of blood from the ICH-affected brain, thus limiting/preventing hemolysis from occurring. CD36 is a well-recognized integral microglia/macrophage cell membrane protein known to mediate phagocytosis of damaged, apoptotic, or senescent cells, including erythrocytes. CD36 and catalase expression are regulated by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma agonists (eg, rosiglitazone). We demonstrate that peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma agonist-induced upregulation of CD36 in macrophages enhances the ability of microglia to phagocytose red blood cells (in vitro assay), helps to improve hematoma resolution, and reduces ICH-induced deficit in a mouse model of ICH. The beneficial role of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma-induced catalase expression in the context of phagocytosis is also discussed. Proxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma agonists could represent a potential treatment strategy for treatment of ICH.
- SourceAvailable from: Xiurong Zhao[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: After intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), the brain parenchyma is exposed to blood containing red blood cells (RBCs) and consequently to its lysis products. Iron-rich hemoglobin (Hb) is the most abundant protein in RBCs. When released into the brain parenchyma during hemolysis, Hb becomes a central mediator of cytotoxicity. Our study indicates that haptoglobin (Hp), an acute-phase response protein primarily synthesized in the liver and known to bind and neutralize Hb in the bloodstream, is also expressed in brain in which it plays an important role in defending neurons from damage induced by hemolytic products after ICH. We demonstrate that the Hb-induced hypohaptoglobinemia aggravates ICH-induced brain damage while pharmacologic intervention with sulforaphane to induce brain Hp is linked to a reduction in brain damage. In agreement with these findings, Hp deficiency worsens whereas Hp overexpression alleviates ICH-mediated brain injury. We also identified that oligodendroglia are the primary source of brain-derived Hp among brain cells and that oligodendroglia-released Hp plays protective roles against Hb-mediated toxicity to neurons and oligodendrocytes. We conclude that Hp, particularly the brain-derived Hp, plays cytoprotective roles and represents a potential therapeutic target for ICH treatment.The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 12/2009; 29(50):15819-27. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3776-09.2009 · 6.75 Impact Factor
Article: Microglia: biology and pathology[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The past 20 years have seen a gain in knowledge on microglia biology and microglia functions in disease that exceeds the expectations formulated when the microglia "immune network" was introduced. More than 10,000 articles have been published during this time. Important new research avenues of clinical importance have opened up such as the role of microglia in pain and in brain tumors. New controversies have also emerged such as the question of whether microglia are active or reactive players in neurodegenerative disease conditions, or whether they may be victims themselves. Premature commercial interests may be responsible for some of the confusion that currently surrounds microglia in both the Alzheimer and Parkinson's disease research fields. A critical review of the literature shows that the concept of "(micro)glial inflammation" is still open to interpretation, despite a prevailing slant towards a negative meaning. Perhaps the most exciting foreseeable development concerns research on the role of microglia in synaptic plasticity, which is expected to yield an answer to the question whether microglia are the brain's electricians. This review provides an analysis of the latest developments in the microglia field.Acta Neuropathologica 12/2009; 119(1):89-105. DOI:10.1007/s00401-009-0622-0 · 9.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Poor admission clinical grade is the most important determinant of outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH); however, little attention has been focused on independent predictors of poor admission clinical grade. We hypothesized that the cerebral inflammatory response initiated at the time of aneurysm rupture contributes to ultra-early brain injury and poor admission clinical grade. We sought to identify factors known to contribute to cerebral inflammation as well as markers of cerebral dysfunction that were associated with poor admission clinical grade. Between 1997 and 2008, 850 consecutive SAH patients were enrolled in our prospective database. Demographic data, physiological parameters, and location and volume of blood were recorded. After univariate analysis, significant variables were entered into a logistic regression model to identify significant associations with poor admission clinical grade (Hunt–Hess grade 4–5). Independent predictors of poor admission grade included a SAH sum score >15/30 (odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5–3.6), an intraventricular hemorrhage sum score >1/12 (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.1–4.8), aneurysm size >10 mm (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.6), body temperature ⩾38.3 °C (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1–5.4), and hyperglycemia >200 mg/dL (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.6–4.5). In a large, consecutive series of prospectively enrolled patients with SAH, the inflammatory response at the time of aneurysm rupture, as reflected by the volume and location of the hemoglobin burden, hyperthermia, and perturbed glucose metabolism, independently predicts poor admission Hunt–Hess grade. Strategies for mitigating the inflammatory response to aneurysmal rupture in the hyper-acute setting may improve the admission clinical grade, which may in turn improve outcomes.Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 01/2010; 17(1):22-25. DOI:10.1016/j.jocn.2009.09.003 · 1.32 Impact Factor