No effective therapy is available for treating intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). One of several key components of brain damage after ICH is the neurotoxicity of blood products. Within hours to days after ICH, extravasated erythrocytes in the hematoma undergo lysis, releasing cytotoxic hemoglobin, heme, and iron, thereby initiating secondary processes, which negatively influence the viability of cells surrounding the hematoma. To offset this process, phagocytic cells, including the brain's microglia and hematogenous macrophages, phagocytose and then process extravasated erythrocytes before lysis and subsequent toxicity occurs. Therefore, we hypothesize that a treatment that stimulates phagocytosis will lead to faster removal of blood from the ICH-affected brain, thus limiting/preventing hemolysis from occurring. CD36 is a well-recognized integral microglia/macrophage cell membrane protein known to mediate phagocytosis of damaged, apoptotic, or senescent cells, including erythrocytes. CD36 and catalase expression are regulated by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma agonists (eg, rosiglitazone). We demonstrate that peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma agonist-induced upregulation of CD36 in macrophages enhances the ability of microglia to phagocytose red blood cells (in vitro assay), helps to improve hematoma resolution, and reduces ICH-induced deficit in a mouse model of ICH. The beneficial role of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma-induced catalase expression in the context of phagocytosis is also discussed. Proxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma agonists could represent a potential treatment strategy for treatment of ICH.
"Injury was also reduced in Ccr2-knockout mice and chimeric mice with Ccr2−/− hematopoietic cells . While monocytes may have an adverse effect early in injury, they may also have a role in tissue repair and hematoma phagocytosis later after ICH [86,98,99] (see below; Figure 5). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article reviews current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the initial hemorrhage and secondary blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction in primary spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in adults. Multiple etiologies are associated with ICH, for example, hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, vascular malformations and coagulopathies (genetic or drug-induced). After the initial bleed, there can be continued bleeding over the first 24 hours, so-called hematoma expansion, which is associated with adverse outcomes. A number of clinical trials are focused on trying to limit such expansion. Significant progress has been made on the causes of BBB dysfunction after ICH at the molecular and cell signaling level. Blood components (e.g. thrombin, hemoglobin, iron) and the inflammatory response to those components play a large role in ICH-induced BBB dysfunction. There are current clinical trials of minimally invasive hematoma removal and iron chelation which may limit such dysfunction. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the initial hemorrhage and secondary BBB dysfunction in ICH is vital for developing methods to prevent and treat this devastating form of stroke.
Fluids and Barriers of the CNS 08/2014; 11(1):18. DOI:10.1186/2045-8118-11-18
"It has been reported in literature that the phagocytosis of extravasated red blood cells and thereby of hemoglobin, heme, and iron released after cell lysis can negatively influence the viability of cells . The successful macrophage depletion, due to the pretreatment of mice with clodronate, was also confirmed by the significant decrease in the iron content of liver and spleen tissue of Group V mice compared to the iron content of Group IV mice (Figure 5). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) and ultra small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles have been developed as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. Iron oxide nanoparticles, that become superparamagnetic if the core particle diameter is (~) 30nm or less, present R1 and R2 relaxivities which are much higher than those of conventional paramagnetic gadolinium chelates. Generally, these magnetic particles are coated with biocompatible polymers that prevent the agglomeration of the colloidal suspension and improve their blood distribution profile. In spite of their potential as MRI blood contrast agents, the biomedical application of iron oxide nanoparticles is still limited because of their intravascular half-life of only few hours; such nanoparticles are rapidly cleared from the bloodstream by macrophages of the reticulo-endothelial system (RES). To increase the life span of these MRI contrast agents in the bloodstream we proposed the encapsulation of SPIO nanoparticles in red blood cells (RBCs) through the transient opening of cell membrane pores. We have recently reported results obtained by applying our loading procedure to several SPIO nanoparticles with different chemical physical characteristics such as size and coating agent. In the current investigation we showed that the life span of iron-based contrast agents in the mice bloodstream was prolonged to 12 days after the intravenous injection of murine SPIO-loaded RBCs. Furthermore, we developed an animal model that implicates the pretreatment of animals with clodronate to induce a transient suppression of tissue macrophages, followed by the injection of human SPIO-loaded RBCs which make it possible to encapsulate nanoparticle concentrations (5.3-16.7mM Fe) higher than murine SPIO-loaded RBCs (1.4-3.55mM Fe). The data showed that, when human RBCs are used as more capable SPIO nanoparticle containers combined with a depletion of tissue macrophages, Fe concentration in animal blood is 2-3 times higher than iron concentration obtained by the use of murine SPIO-loaded RBCs.
PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e78542. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0078542 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"In mice, PPARγ agonist treatment beginning 24 hours after ICH enhanced the phagocytosis of the hematoma and reduced IL-1β, TNF, MMP-9, and iNOS expression. In microglial cultures, PPARγ increased CD36-mediated microglial phagocytosis of red blood cells [103, 104]. Targeting microglial function (i.e., phagocytosis) as a therapeutic for ICH may have potential for modulating the immune response and enhancing recovery. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stroke is a leading cause of death worldwide. Ischemic stroke is caused by blockage of blood vessels in the brain leading to tissue death, while intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) occurs when a blood vessel ruptures, exposing the brain to blood components. Both are associated with glial toxicity and neuroinflammation. Microglia, as the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), continually sample the environment for signs of injury and infection. Under homeostatic conditions, they have a ramified morphology and phagocytose debris. After stroke, microglia become activated, obtain an amoeboid morphology, and release inflammatory cytokines (the M1 phenotype). However, microglia can also be alternatively activated, performing crucial roles in limiting inflammation and phagocytosing tissue debris (the M2 phenotype). In rodent models, microglial activation occurs very early after stroke and ICH; however, their specific roles in injury and repair remain unclear. This review summarizes the literature on microglial responses after ischemic stroke and ICH, highlighting the mediators of microglial activation and potential therapeutic targets for each condition.
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