Hematoma resolution as a therapeutic target: the role of microglia/macrophages.
ABSTRACT No effective therapy is available for treating intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). One of several key components of brain damage after ICH is the neurotoxicity of blood products. Within hours to days after ICH, extravasated erythrocytes in the hematoma undergo lysis, releasing cytotoxic hemoglobin, heme, and iron, thereby initiating secondary processes, which negatively influence the viability of cells surrounding the hematoma. To offset this process, phagocytic cells, including the brain's microglia and hematogenous macrophages, phagocytose and then process extravasated erythrocytes before lysis and subsequent toxicity occurs. Therefore, we hypothesize that a treatment that stimulates phagocytosis will lead to faster removal of blood from the ICH-affected brain, thus limiting/preventing hemolysis from occurring. CD36 is a well-recognized integral microglia/macrophage cell membrane protein known to mediate phagocytosis of damaged, apoptotic, or senescent cells, including erythrocytes. CD36 and catalase expression are regulated by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma agonists (eg, rosiglitazone). We demonstrate that peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma agonist-induced upregulation of CD36 in macrophages enhances the ability of microglia to phagocytose red blood cells (in vitro assay), helps to improve hematoma resolution, and reduces ICH-induced deficit in a mouse model of ICH. The beneficial role of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma-induced catalase expression in the context of phagocytosis is also discussed. Proxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma agonists could represent a potential treatment strategy for treatment of ICH.
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ABSTRACT: Although microglia and the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway have long been thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), thus far only correlations have been made. In this study, we attempted to solidify the relationship between microglia and the TLR pathway using depletion and genetic knockouts, respectively. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was induced in TLR4-/-, TRIF-/-, MyD88-/- and wild type C57BL/6 mice by injecting 60 mul of autologous blood near the mesencephalon; animals were euthanized 1 to 15 days after SAH for immunohistochemical analysis to detect microglia or apoptotic cells. Lastly, microglial depletion was performed by intracerebroventricular injection of clodronate liposomes. On post operative day (POD) 7 (early phase SAH), neuronal apoptosis was largely TLR4-MyD88-dependent and microglial-dependent. By POD 15 (late phase SAH), neuronal apoptosis was characterized by TLR4- toll receptor associated activator of interferon (TRIF)-dependence and microglial-independence. Similarly, vasospasm was also characterized by an early and late phase with MyD88 and TRIF dependence, respectively. Lastly, microglia seem to be both necessary and sufficient to cause vasospasm in both the early and late phases of SAH in our model. Our results suggest that SAH pathology could have different phases. These results could explain why therapies tailored to aSAH patients have failed for the most part. Perhaps a novel strategy utilizing immunotherapies that target Toll like receptor signaling and microglia at different points in the patient's hospital course could improve outcomes.Journal of Neuroinflammation 07/2013; 10(1):83. · 4.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Promoting hematoma absorption is a novel therapeutic strategy for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH); however, the mechanism of hematoma absorption is unclear. The present study explored the function and potential mechanism of CD36 in hematoma absorption using in vitro and in vivo ICH models. Hematoma absorption in CD36-deficient ICH patients was examined. Compared with patients with normal CD36 expression, CD36-deficient ICH patients had slower hematoma adsorption and aggravated neurologic deficits. CD36 expression in perihematomal tissues in wild-type mice following ICH was increased, whereas the hematoma absorption in CD36(-/-) mice was decreased. CD36(-/-) mice also showed aggravated neurologic deficits and increased TNF-α and IL-1β expression levels. The phagocytic capacity of CD36(-/-) microglia for RBCs was also decreased. Additionally, the CD36 expression in the perihematoma area after ICH in TLR4(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice was significantly increased, and hematoma absorption was significantly promoted, which was significantly inhibited by an anti-CD36 Ab. In vitro, TNF-α and IL-1β significantly inhibited the microglia expression of CD36 and reduced the microglia phagocytosis of RBCs. Finally, the TLR4 inhibitor TAK-242 upregulated CD36 expression in microglia, promoted hematoma absorption, increased catalase expression, and decreased the H2O2 content. These results suggested that CD36 mediated hematoma absorption after ICH, and TLR4 signaling inhibited CD36 expression to slow hematoma absorption. TLR4 inhibition could promote hematoma absorption and significantly improve neurologic deficits following ICH.The Journal of Immunology 05/2014; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 10-15% of all strokes and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Currently, no effective medical treatment is available to improve functional outcomes in patients with ICH. Potential therapies targeting secondary brain injury are arousing a great deal of interest in translational studies. Increasing evidence has shown that inflammation is the key contributor of ICH-induced secondary brain injury. Inflammation progresses in response to various stimuli produced after ICH. Hematoma components initiate inflammatory signaling via activation of microglia, subsequently releasing proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines to attract peripheral inflammatory infiltration. Hemoglobin (Hb), heme, and iron released after red blood cell lysis aggravate ICH-induced inflammatory injury. Danger associated molecular patterns such as high mobility group box 1 protein, released from damaged or dead cells, trigger inflammation in the late stage of ICH. Preclinical studies have identified inflammatory signaling pathways that are involved in microglial activation, leukocyte infiltration, toll-like receptor (TLR) activation, and danger associated molecular pattern regulation in ICH. Recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of ICH-induced inflammatory injury have facilitated the identification of several novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of ICH. This review summarizes recent progress concerning the mechanisms underlying ICH-induced inflammation. We focus on the inflammatory signaling pathways involved in microglial activation and TLR signaling, and explore potential therapeutic interventions by targeting the removal of hematoma components and inhibition of TLR signaling.Progress in Neurobiology 11/2013; · 9.04 Impact Factor