Highly sensitive electrochemical impedance spectroscopic detection of DNA hybridization based on Au(nano)-CNT/PAN(nano) films.
ABSTRACT A polyaniline nanofibers (PAN(nano))/carbon paste electrode (CPE) was prepared via dopping PAN(nano) in the carbon paste. The nanogold (Au(nano)) and carbon nanotubes (CNT) composite nanoparticles were bound on the surface of the PAN(nano)/CPE. The immobilization and hybridization of the DNA probe on the Au(nano)-CNT/PAN(nano) films were investigated with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) using methylene blue (MB) as indicator, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-) as redox probe. The voltammetric peak currents of MB increased dramatically owing to the immobilization of the probe DNA on the Au(nano)-CNT/PAN(nano) films, and then decreased obviously owing to the hybridization of the DNA probe with the complementary single-stranded DNA (cDNA). The electron transfer resistance (R(et)) of the electrode surface increased after the immobilization of the probe DNA on the Au(nano)-CNT/PAN(nano) films and rose further after the hybridization of the probe DNA. The remarkable difference between the R(et) value at the DNA-immobilized electrode and that at the hybridized electrode could be used for the label-free EIS detection of the target DNA. The loading of the DNA probe on Au(nano)-CNT/PAN(nano) films was greatly enhanced and the sensitivity for the target DNA detection was markedly improved. The sequence-specific DNA of phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) gene and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of nopaline synthase (NOS) gene from transgenically modified beans were determined with this label-free EIS DNA detection method. The dynamic range for detecting the PAT gene sequence was from 1.0 x 10(-12)mol/L to 1.0 x 10(-6)mol/L with a detection limit of 5.6 x 10(-13)mol/L.
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ABSTRACT: Herein, we envisage the possibility of preparing stable cationic poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres encapsulating the iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs; 8-12 nm). The IONPs are incorporated into PLGA in organic phase followed by microsphere formation and chitosan coating in aqueous medium via nano-emulsion technique. The average size of the microspheres, as determined by dynamic light scattering are about 310 nm, while the zeta potential for the composite remains near 35 mV at pH 4.0. These microspheres are electrophoretically deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate used as cathode and parallel platinum plate as the counter electrode. This platform is utilized to fabricate a DNA biosensor, by immobilizing a probe sequence specific to Escherichia coli. The bioelectrode shows a surface-controlled electrode reaction with the electron transfer coefficient (α) of 0.64 and charge transfer rate constant (ks) of 61.73 s(-1). Under the optimal conditions, this biosensor shows a detection limit of 8.7 × 10(-14) M and is found to retain about 81% of the initial activity after 9 cycles of use.Nanoscale 03/2013; · 6.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An MRSA assay requiring neither labeling nor amplification of target DNA has been developed. Sequence specific binding of fragments of bacterial genomic DNA is detected at femtomolar concentrations using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). This has been achieved using systematic optimisation of probe chemistry (PNA self-assembled monolayer film on gold electrode), electrode film structure (the size and nature of the chemical spacer) and DNA fragmentation, as these are found to play an important role in assay performance. These sensitivity improvements allow the elimination of the PCR step and DNA labeling and facilitate the development of a simple and rapid point of care test for MRSA. Assay performance is then evaluated and specific direct detection of the MRSA diagnostic mecA gene from genomic DNA, extracted directly from bacteria without further treatment is demonstrated for bacteria spiked into saline (10(6) cells per mL) on gold macrodisc electrodes and into human wound fluid (10(4) cells per mL) on screen printed gold electrodes. The latter detection level is particularly relevant to clinical requirements and point of care testing where the general threshold for considering a wound to be infected is 10(5) cells per mL. By eliminating the PCR step typically employed in nucleic acid assays, using screen printed electrodes and achieving sequence specific discrimination under ambient conditions, the test is extremely simple to design and engineer. In combination with a time to result of a few minutes this means the assay is well placed for use in point of care testing.The Analyst 10/2013; · 4.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Electrochemical (EC) sensing approaches have exploited the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as electrode materials owing to their unique structures and properties to provide strong electrocatalytic activity with minimal surface fouling. Nanofabrication and device integration technologies have emerged along with significant advances in the synthesis, purification, conjugation and biofunctionalization of CNTs. Such combined efforts have contributed towards the rapid development of CNT-based sensors for a plethora of important analytes with improved detection sensitivity and selectivity. The use of CNTs opens an opportunity for the direct electron transfer between the enzyme and the active electrode area. Of particular interest are also excellent electrocatalytic activities of CNTs on the redox reaction of hydrogen peroxide and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, two major by-products of enzymatic reactions. This excellent electrocatalysis holds a promising future for the simple design and implementation of on-site biosensors for oxidases and dehydrogenases with enhanced selectivity. To date, the use of an anti-interference layer or an artificial electron mediator is critically needed to circumvent unwanted endogenous electroactive species. Such interfering species are effectively suppressed by using CNT based electrodes since the oxidation of NADH, thiols, hydrogen peroxide, etc. by CNTs can be performed at low potentials. Nevertheless, the major future challenges for the development of CNT-EC sensors include miniaturization, optimization and simplification of the procedure for fabricating CNT based electrodes with minimal non-specific binding, high sensitivity and rapid response followed by their extensive validation using "real world" samples. A high resistance to electrode fouling and selectivity are the two key pending issues for the application of CNT-based biosensors in clinical chemistry, food quality and control, waste water treatment and bioprocessing.Biotechnology advances 10/2010; 29(2):169-88. · 8.25 Impact Factor