Effect of Comprehensive Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes on Prehypertension
ABSTRACT Although national clinical guidelines promulgate therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC) as a cornerstone in the management of prehypertension, there is a perceived ineffectiveness of TLC in the real world. In this study of 2,478 ethnically diverse (African Americans n = 448, Caucasians n = 1,881) men (n = 666) and women (n = 1,812) with prehypertension and no known atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, or chronic kidney disease, we evaluated the clinical effectiveness of TLC in normalizing blood pressure (BP) without antihypertensive medications. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and after an average of 6 months of participation in a community-based program of TLC. TLC included exercise training, nutrition, weight management, stress management, and smoking cessation interventions. Baseline BP (125 +/- 8/79 +/- 3 mm Hg) decreased by 6 +/- 12/3 +/- 3 mm Hg (p <or=0.001), with 952 subjects (38.4%) normalizing their BP (p <or=0.001). In subjects with a baseline systolic BP of 120 to 139 mm Hg (n = 2,082), systolic BP decreased by 7 +/- 12 mm Hg (p <or=0.001). In subjects with a baseline diastolic BP of 80 to 89 mm Hg (n = 1,504), diastolic BP decreased by 6 +/- 3 mm Hg (p <or=0.001). There were no racial differences in the magnitude of reduction in BP; however, women had greater BP reductions than men (p <or=0.001). Also, subjects with a baseline body mass index (BMI) <30 kg/m(2) had a greater reduction in BP than those with a BMI >or=30 kg/m(2). In conclusion, the present study adds to previous research by reporting on the effectiveness, rather than the efficacy, of TLC when administered in a real-world, community-based setting.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this investigation was to determine and compare current and projected expenditure associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), renal replacement therapy (RRT), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Australia. Data published by Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, and World Bank were used to compare CKD-, RRT-, and CVD-related expenditure and prevalence rates. Prevalence and expenditure predictions were made using a linear regression model. Direct statistical comparisons of rates of annual increase utilised indicator variables in combined regressions. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Dollar amounts were adjusted for inflation prior to analysis. Between 2012 and 2020, prevalence, per-patient expenditure, and total disease expenditure associated with CKD and RRT are estimated to increase significantly more rapidly than CVD. RRT prevalence is estimated to increase by 29%, compared to 7% in CVD. Average annual RRT per-patient expenditure is estimated to increase by 16%, compared to 8% in CVD. Total CKD- and RRT-related expenditure had been estimated to increase by 37%, compared to 14% in CVD. Per-patient, CKD produces a considerably greater financial impact on Australia's healthcare system, compared to CVD. Research focusing on novel preventative/therapeutic interventions is warranted.04/2014; 2014:120537. DOI:10.1155/2014/120537
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ABSTRACT: Background Lifestyle modification is recommended for management of prehypertension, yet finding effective interventions to reach rural women is a public health challenge. This community-based clinical trial compared the effectiveness of standard advice to two multi-component theory-based tailored interventions, using web-based or print-mailed delivery, in reducing blood pressure among rural women, ages 40¿69, with prehypertension.Methods289 women with prehypertension enrolled in the Wellness for Women: DASHing towards Health trial, a 12-month intervention with 12-month follow-up. Women were randomly assigned to groups using a 1:2:2 ratio, comparing standard advice (30-minute counseling session) to two interventions (two 2-hour counseling sessions, 5 phone goal-setting sessions, strength-training video, and 16 tailored newsletters, web-based or print-mailed). Linear mixed model methods were used to test planned pairwise comparisons of marginal mean change in blood pressure, healthy eating and activity, adjusted for age and baseline level. General estimating equations were used to examine the proportion of women achieving normotensive status and meeting health outcome criteria for eating and activity.ResultsMean blood pressure reduction ranged from 3.8 (SD¿=¿9.8) mm Hg to 8.1 (SD¿=¿10.4) mm Hg. The 24-month estimated marginal proportions of women achieving normotensive status were 47% for web-based, and 39% for both print-mailed and standard advice groups, with no group differences (p¿=¿.11 and p¿=¿.09, respectively). Web-based and print-mailed groups improved more than standard advice group for waist circumference (p¿=¿.017 and p¿=¿.016, respectively); % daily calories from fat (p¿=¿.018 and p¿=¿.030) and saturated fat (p¿=¿.049 and p¿=¿.013); daily servings of fruit and vegetables (p¿=¿.008 and p¿<¿.005); and low fat dairy (p¿<¿.001 and p¿=¿.002). Greater improvements were observed in web-based versus standard advice groups in systolic blood pressure (p¿=¿.048) and estimated VO2max (p¿=¿.037). Dropout rates were 6% by 6-months, 11.4% by 24 months, with no differences across groups.Conclusions Rural women with prehypertension receiving distance-delivery theory-based lifestyle modifications can achieve a reduction of blood pressure and attainment of normotensive status.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT00580528.International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 12/2014; 11(1):148. DOI:10.1186/s12966-014-0148-2 · 3.68 Impact Factor