Hakimi AA, Ostrovnaya I, Reva B, et al. Adverse outcomes in clear cell renal cell carcinoma with mutations of 3p21 epigenetic regulators BAP1 and SETD2: a report by MSKCC and the KIRC TCGA research network
To investigate the impact of newly identified chromosome 3p21 epigenetic tumor suppressors PBRM1, SETD2, and BAP1 on cancer-specific survival (CSS) of 609 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) from 2 distinct cohorts.
Select sequencing on 3p tumor suppressors of 188 patients who underwent resection of primary ccRCC at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) was conducted to interrogate the genotype-phenotype associations. These findings were compared with analyses of the genomic and clinical dataset from our nonoverlapping The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort of 421 patients with primary ccRCC.
3p21 tumor suppressors are frequently mutated in both the MSKCC (PBRM1, 30.3%; SETD2, 7.4%; BAP1, 6.4%) and the TCGA (PBRM1, 33.5%; SETD2, 11.6%; BAP1, 9.7%) cohorts. BAP1 mutations are associated with worse CSS in both cohorts [MSKCC, P = 0.002; HR 7.71; 95% confidence interval (CI)2.08-28.6; TCGA, P = 0.002; HR 2.21; 95% CI 1.35-3.63]. SETD2 are associated with worse CSS in the TCGA cohort (P = 0.036; HR 1.68; 95% CI 1.04-2.73). On the contrary, PBRM1 mutations, the second most common gene mutations of ccRCC, have no impact on CSS.
The chromosome 3p21 locus harbors 3 frequently mutated ccRCC tumor suppressor genes. BAP1 and SETD2 mutations (6%-12%) are associated with worse CSS, suggesting their roles in disease progression. PBRM1 mutations (30%-34%) do not impact CSS, implicating its principal role in the tumor initiation. Future efforts should focus on therapeutic interventions and further clinical, pathologic, and molecular interrogation of this novel class of tumor suppressors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Candidate biomarkers have been identified for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients, but most have not been validated.
To validate published ccRCC prognostic biomarkers in an independent patient cohort and to assess intratumour heterogeneity (ITH) of the most promising markers to guide biomarker optimisation.
Design, setting, and participants
Cancer-specific survival (CSS) for each of 28 identified genetic or transcriptomic biomarkers was assessed in 350 ccRCC patients. ITH was interrogated in a multiregion biopsy data set of 10 ccRCCs.
Outcome measurements and statistical analysis
Biomarker association with CSS was analysed by univariate and multivariate analyses.
Results and limitations
A total of 17 of 28 biomarkers (TP53 mutations; amplifications of chromosomes 8q, 12, 20q11.21q13.32, and 20 and deletions of 4p, 9p, 9p21.3p24.1, and 22q; low EDNRB and TSPAN7 expression and six gene expression signatures) were validated as predictors of poor CSS in univariate analysis. Tumour stage and the ccB expression signature were the only independent predictors in multivariate analysis. ITH of the ccB signature was identified in 8 of 10 tumours. Several genetic alterations that were significant in univariate analysis were enriched, and chromosomal instability indices were increased in samples expressing the ccB signature. The study may be underpowered to validate low-prevalence biomarkers.
The ccB signature was the only independent prognostic biomarker. Enrichment of multiple poor prognosis genetic alterations in ccB samples indicated that several events may be required to establish this aggressive phenotype, catalysed in some tumours by chromosomal instability. Multiregion assessment may improve the precision of this biomarker.
European Urology 07/2014; 66(5). DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2014.06.053 · 13.94 Impact Factor
"Very recently, studies have focused on identifying pathologic correlations for these genomic alterations . The evidence unanimously suggests that BAP1 mutations are associated with pathological features suggestive of aggressive disease (Hakimi et al., 2012; Pena-Llopis et al., 2012; Kapur et al., 2013) and worse cancer specific survival (Hakimi et al., 2013). In contrast, evidence regarding the clinical significance of mutations in PBRM1 and SETD2 is inconsistent (Hakimi et al., 2012; Pena- Llopis et al., 2012; Kapur et al., 2013). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic changes underlying clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) include alterations in genes controlling cellular oxygen sensing (for example, VHL) and the maintenance of chromatin states (for example, PBRM1). We surveyed more than 400 tumours using different genomic platforms and identified 19 significantly mutated genes. The PI(3)K/AKT pathway was recurrently mutated, suggesting this pathway as a potential therapeutic target. Widespread DNA hypomethylation was associated with mutation of the H3K36 methyltransferase SETD2, and integrative analysis suggested that mutations involving the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex (PBRM1, ARID1A, SMARCA4) could have far-reaching effects on other pathways. Aggressive cancers demonstrated evidence of a metabolic shift, involving downregulation of genes involved in the TCA cycle, decreased AMPK and PTEN protein levels, upregulation of the pentose phosphate pathway and the glutamine transporter genes, increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase protein, and altered promoter methylation of miR-21 (also known as MIR21) and GRB10. Remodelling cellular metabolism thus constitutes a recurrent pattern in ccRCC that correlates with tumour stage and severity and offers new views on the opportunities for disease treatment.
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