Adverse Outcomes in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma with Mutations of 3p21 Epigenetic Regulators BAP1 and SETD2: a Report by MSKCC and the KIRC TCGA Research Network.
ABSTRACT Purpose To investigate the impact of newly identified chromosome 3p21 epigenetic tumor suppressors PBRM1, SETD2, and BAP1 on cancer specific survival (CSS) of 609 clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients from two distinct cohorts. Patients and Methods Select sequencing on 3p tumor suppressors of 188 patients who underwent resection of primary ccRCC at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) was performed to interrogate the genotype-phenotype associations. These findings were compared to analyses of the genomic and clinical dataset from our non-overlapping The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort of 421 primary ccRCC patients. Results 3p21 tumor suppressors are frequently mutated in both the MSKCC (PBRM1, 30.3%; SETD2, 7.4%; BAP1, 6.4%) and the TCGA (PBRM1, 33.5%; SETD2, 11.6%; BAP1, 9.7%) cohorts. BAP1 mutations are associated with worse CSS in both cohorts (MSKCC, p=0.002, HR 7.71 (2.08-28.6); TCGA, p=0.002, HR 2.21 (1.35-3.63)). SETD2 are associated with worse CSS in the TCGA cohort (p=0.036, HR 1.68 (1.04-2.73)). On the contrary, PBRM1 mutations, the second most common gene mutations of ccRCC, have no impact on CSS. Conclusion The chromosome 3p21 locus harbors three frequently mutated ccRCC tumor suppressor genes. BAP1 and SETD2 mutations (6-12%) are associated with worse CSS, suggesting their roles in disease progression. PBRM1 mutations (30-34%) do not impact CSS, implicating its principal role in the tumor initiation. Future efforts should focus on therapeutic interventions and further clinical, pathologic and molecular interrogation of this novel class of tumor suppressors.
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ABSTRACT: The development of new forms of treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma over the past two decades has been primarily focused on targeting the VHL/HIF pathway. The recent identification of mutations of chromatin-remodeling genes in clear-cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC), of genomic heterogeneity, and of a Warburg-like metabolic phenotype in advanced disease has had a profound effect on our understanding of the evolution of ccRCC and on potential approaches to personalized therapy. Early approaches to therapy for patients with advanced type I papillary RCC that have centered around the MET/HGF pathway will expand as more genomic information becomes available. Sporadic and familial type II papillary renal cell carcinoma are characterized by enhanced aerobic glycolysis and share an antioxidant response phenotype. In fumarate hydratase-deficient RCC, fumarate-induced succination of KEAP1 activates Nrf2 signaling. CUL3 and Nrf2 mutations as well as an Nrf2 activation phenotype are found in sporadic type II papillary RCC. Therapeutic approaches designed to target the Nrf2 pathway as well as to impair blood flow and glucose delivery in these cancers that are highly dependent on a robust tumor vasculature and on ready availability of glucose for energy production and glycolysis are in development. Clin Cancer Res; 21(1); 10-17. ©2015 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.Clinical Cancer Research 01/2015; 21(1):10-7. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-2993 · 8.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: SWI/SNF is a major regulator of gene expression. Its role is to facilitate the shifting and exposure of DNA segments within the promoter and other key domains to transcription factors and other essential cellular proteins. This complex interacts with a wide range of proteins and does not function within a single, specific pathway; thus, it is involved in a multitude of cellular processes, including DNA repair, differentiation, development, cell adhesion, and growth control. Given SWI/SNF's prominent role in these processes, many of which are important for blocking cancer development, it is not surprising that the SWI/SNF complex is targeted during cancer initiation and progression both by mutations and by non-mutational mechanisms. Currently, the understanding of the types of alterations, their frequency, and their impact on the SWI/SNF subunits is an area of intense research that has been bolstered by a recent cadre of NextGen sequencing studies. These studies have revealed mutations in SWI/SNF subunits, indicating that this complex is thus important for cancer development. The purpose of this review is to put into perspective the role of mutations versus other mechanisms in the silencing of SWI/SNF subunits, in particular, BRG1 and BRM. In addition, this review explores the recent development of synthetic lethality and how it applies to this complex, as well as how BRM polymorphisms are becoming recognized as potential clinical biomarkers for cancer risk. Recent reviews have detailed the occurrence of mutations in nearly all SWI/SNF subunits, which indicates that this complex is an important target for cancer. However, when the frequency of mutations in a given tumor type is compared to the frequency of subunit loss, it becomes clear that other non-mutational mechanisms must play a role in the inactivation of SWI/SNF subunits. Such data indicate that epigenetic mechanisms that are known to regulate BRM may also be involved in the loss of expression of other SWI/SNF subunits. This is important since epigenetically silenced genes are inducible, and thus, the reversal of the silencing of these non-mutationally suppressed subunits may be a viable mode of targeted therapy.Frontiers in Oncology 01/2014; 4:372. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2014.00372
Korean journal of urology 02/2015; 56(2):87. DOI:10.4111/kju.2015.56.2.87