Minimally invasive techniques have revolutionized the field of general surgery over the few last decades. Despite its advantages, in complex procedures such as rectal surgery, laparoscopy has not achieved a high penetration rate because of its steep learning curve, its relatively high conversion rate and technical challenges. The aim of this study was to present a single center experience with robotic surgery for rectal cancer focusing mainly on early and mid-term postoperative outcome.
A series of 100 consecutive patients who underwent robotic rectal surgery between January 2008 and June 2012 was analyzed retrospectively in terms of demographics, pathological data, surgical and oncological outcomes.
Seventy-seven patients underwent robotic sphincter-saving resection, and 23 patients underwent robotic abdominoperineal resection. There were 4 conversions. The median operative time for sphincter-saving procedures was 180 min. The median time for robotic abdominoperineal resection was 160 min. The median distal resection margin of the operative specimen was 3 cm. The median number of retrieved lymph nodes was 14. The median hospital stay was 10 days. In-hospital mortality was nil. The overall morbidity was 30%. Four patients presented transitory postoperative urinary dysfunction. Severe erectile dysfunction was reported by 3 patients. The median length of follow-up was 24 months. The 3-year overall survival rate was 90%.
Robotic surgery is advantageous for both surgeons (in that it facilitates dissection in a narrow pelvis) and patients (in that it affords a very good quality of life via the preservation of sexual and urinary function in the vast majority of patients and it has low morbidity and good midterm oncological outcomes). In rectal cancer surgery, the robotic approach is a promising alternative and is expected to overcome the low penetration rate of laparoscopy in this field.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Robotic surgery has opened a new era in several specialties but the diffusion of medical innovation is slower indigestive surgery than in urology due to considerations related to cost and cost-efficiency. Studies often discuss the launching of the robotic program as well as the technical or clinical data related to specific procedures but there are very few articles evaluating already existing robotic programs. The aims of the present study are to evaluate the results of a five-year robotic program and to assess the evolution of indications in a center with expertise in a wide range of thoracic and abdominal robotic surgery.
Material and methods:
All consecutive robotic surgery cases performed in our center since the beginning of the program and prior to the 31st of December 2012 were included in this study, summing up to 734 cases throughout five years of experience in the field. Demographic, clinical, surgical and postoperative variables were recorded and analyzed.Comparative parametric and non-parametric tests, univariate and multivariate analyses and CUSUM analysis were performed.
In this group, the average age was 50,31 years. There were 60,9% females and 39,1% males. 55,3% of all interventions were indicated for oncological disease. 36% of all cases of either benign or malignant etiology were pelvic conditions whilst 15,4% were esogastric conditions. Conversion was performed in 18 cases (2,45%). Mean operative time was 179,4Â+-86,06 min. Mean docking time was 11,16Â+-2,82 min.The mean hospital length of stay was 8,54 (Â+-5,1) days. There were 26,2% complications of all Clavien subtypes but important complications (Clavien III-V) only represented 6,2%.Male sex, age over 65 years old, oncological cases and robotic suturing were identified as risk factors for unfavorable outcomes.
The present data support the feasibility of different and complex procedures in a general surgery department as well as the ascending evolution of a well-designed and well-conducted robotic program. From the large variety of surgical interventions, we think that a robotic program could be focused on solving oncologic cases and different types of pelvic and gastroesophageal junction conditions, especially rectal, cervical and endometrial cancer, achalasia and complicated or redo hiatal hernia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
To give a comprehensive review of current literature on robotic rectal cancer surgery.
A systematic review of current literature via PubMed and Embase search engines was performed to identify relevant articles from january 2007 to november 2013. The keywords used were: "robotic surgery", "surgical robotics", "laparoscopic computer-assisted surgery", "colectomy" and "rectal resection".
After the initial screen of 380 articles, 20 papers were selected for review. A total of 1062 patients (male 64.0%) with a mean age of 61.1 years and body mass index of 24.9 kg/m(2) were included in the review. Out of 1062 robotic-assisted operations, 831 (78.2%) anterior and low anterior resections, 132 (12.4%) intersphincteric resection with coloanal anastomosis, 98 (9.3%) abdominoperineal resections and 1 (0.1%) Hartmann's operation were included in the review. Robotic rectal surgery was associated with longer operative time but with comparable oncological results and anastomotic leak rate when compared with laparoscopic rectal surgery.
Robotic colorectal surgery has continued to evolve to its current state with promising results; feasible surgical option with low conversion rate and comparable short-term oncological results. The challenges faced with robotic surgery are for more high quality studies to justify its cost.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques have become an established part of the care of the adult oncology patient. As surgeons have become more experienced with these advances in technique, MIS has recently seen an expanding role in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric malignancies. We hypothesize that MIS techniques can be used to provide reliable diagnosis and safe therapeutic resection of many pediatric malignancies.
We performed a retrospective review of all patients who underwent a minimally invasive operation for diagnosis or treatment of a malignant solid tumor at the Children's Hospital Colorado over a ten-year period.
A total of 105 minimally invasive procedures were performed in 98 patients, 61% of which were male. The majority of cases, 78 (74%) were thoracoscopic procedures and the remaining 27 (26%) were laparoscopic procedures. Twenty-one (27%) thoracoscopic procedures were performed for complete resection of primary tumor or metastases, with only three cases (14%) converted to open thoracotomy. Tumors that were successfully removed thoracoscopically include neuroblastomas (n = 8), metastatic disease (n = 7), and a schwannoma. Of the 28 laparoscopic procedures, nine were performed for tumor resection with one case converted to open. Tumors that were successfully removed laparoscopically include 6 adrenal neuroblastomas and one pseudopapillary pancreatic tumor. There were no major surgical complications. No port site or surgical site recurrences were reported.
MIS techniques can be used safely and effectively for the diagnosis and resection of pediatric malignancies and treatment decisions can be made accurately based on tissue obtained.
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