Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Nicotine Transdermal Patch for Dual Nicotine and Cannabis Dependence: A Pilot Study
ABSTRACT We assessed the feasibility of a new cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) manual, plus transdermal patch nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), to treat co-occurring nicotine and cannabis dependence.
Seven of 12 (58.3%) adults with DSM-IV diagnoses of both nicotine and cannabis dependence completed 10 weeks of individual CBT and NRT.
Participants smoked 12.6 ± 4.9 tobacco cigarettes per day at baseline, which was reduced to 2.1 ± 4.2 at the end of treatment (F = 23.5, p < .0001). The reduction in cannabis use from 10.0 ± 5.3 inhalations per day at baseline to 8.0 ± 5.3 inhalations per day at 10 weeks was not significant (F = 1.12, p = .37). There was a significant decrease from the mean baseline Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence scores at weeks 4, 6, 8, and 10 of treatment (F = 19.8, p < .001) and mean Client Satisfaction Questionnaire scores were uniformly high (30.6 ± 1.9).
A CBT plus NRT treatment program significantly reduced tobacco smoking but did not significantly reduce cannabis use in individuals with co-occurring nicotine and cannabis dependence. There was no compensatory increase in cannabis use following the reduction in tobacco smoking, suggesting that clinicians can safely pursue simultaneous treatment of co-occurring nicotine and cannabis dependence. The intervention was well-liked by the 7 of the 12 enrollees who completed the study. (Am J Addict 2013; 22:233-238).
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Background and objectives: Tobacco and cannabis use are both highly prevalent worldwide. Their co-use is also common in adults and adolescents. Despite this frequent co-occurrence, cessation from both substances is rarely addressed in randomized clinical trials. Given evidence that tobacco use may increase during cannabis cessation attempts, and additionally that tobacco users have poorer cannabis cessation outcomes, we explored tobacco outcomes, specifically cigarette smoking, from an adolescent cannabis cessation trial that tested the efficacy of N-acetylesteine (NAC). Methods: Cannabis-dependent adolescents (ages 15-21; n = 116) interested in cannabis treatment were randomized to NAC (1200 mg bid) or matched placebo for 8 weeks. Participants did not need to be cigarette smokers or be interested in smoking cessation to qualify for inclusion. Results: Approximately 59% of enrolled participants were daily and non-daily cigarette smokers, and only differed from non-smoking participants on the compulsion sub-scale of the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire. Among cigarette smokers who were retained in the study, there was no change in cigarettes per day for either NAC or placebo groups during the eight-week treatment phase. Being a cigarette smoker did not appear to influence the effects of NAC on cannabis abstinence, though there was a trend in the placebo group of poorer cannabis outcomes for cigarette smokers vs. non-smokers. Conclusions: No evidence was found of compensatory cigarette smoking during this cannabis cessation trial in adolescents. Further work assessing interventions to reduce both cannabis and tobacco use in this population is greatly needed.The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 04/2014; DOI:10.3109/00952990.2013.878718 · 1.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Approximately 50% of individuals seeking treatment for cannabis use disorders (CUD) also smoke tobacco, and tobacco smoking is a predictor of poor outcomes for those in treatment for CUD. Quitting tobacco is associated with long-term abstinence from alcohol and illicit drugs, yet there are no established treatments for CUD that also target tobacco smoking. This report highlights issues related to cannabis and tobacco co-use and discusses potential treatment approaches targeting both substances. Data is shared from the first six participants enrolled in an intervention designed to simultaneously target tobacco use in individuals seeking treatment for CUD. The twelve-week program comprised computer-assisted delivery of Motivational Enhancement Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, and Contingency Management, i.e., abstinence-based incentives for CUD. In addition, participants were encouraged to complete an optional tobacco intervention consisting of nicotine-replacement therapy and computer-assisted delivery of a behavioral treatment tailored for tobacco and cannabis users. All participants completed the cannabis intervention and at least a portion of the tobacco intervention: all completed at least one tobacco computer module (mean=2.5 modules) and 50% initiated nicotine replacement therapy. Five of six participants achieved abstinence from cannabis. The number of tobacco quit attempts was lower than expected, however all participants attempted to reduce tobacco use during treatment. Simultaneously targeting tobacco during treatment for CUD did not negatively impact cannabis outcomes. Participation in the tobacco intervention was high, but cessation outcomes were poor suggesting that alternative strategies might be needed to more effectively prompt quit attempts and enhance quit rates.Addictive behaviors 04/2014; 39(8):1224-1230. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.04.010 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In most of the world, cannabis smokers mix loose tobacco inside a joint, pipe, spliff, or cone. More recently, a 'blunt' formulation combines these two drugs by inserting cannabis into a hollowed-out cigar. Epidemiological research linking simultaneous use of these two drugs and the development of cannabis use disorders (CUD) remains unclear. This study estimates associations linking blunt smoking with levels and subtypes of cannabis problems. Cross-sectional data on 27,767 past-year cannabis users were analyzed from the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) conducted from 2009 to 2012. Ten self-reported items of DSM-IV CUD features elicited a single latent trait of cannabis problem (CP) severity, which was then regressed on past-year blunt smoking and past-month blunt frequency measures within the context of a conceptual model. Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis evaluated potential bias in CP feature response by blunt smoking history. Past-year blunt smoking was associated with higher CP severity compared to cannabis users who did not smoke blunts. Days of blunt smoking in the past month also predicted higher CP severity than less frequent blunt use. Those smoking blunts experienced more subjectively felt tolerance and having spent more time obtaining or using cannabis, but were less likely to experience other problems, even at the same level of CP severity. These findings suggest smoking blunts might promote the development of problematic cannabis use. Responses to cannabis problems differed by history of blunt smoking, possibly implicating an influence of tobacco on measurement of cannabis use disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Drug and Alcohol Dependence 02/2015; 150. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.02.014 · 3.28 Impact Factor