Postoperative delirium in the intensive care unit predicts worse outcomes in liver transplant recipients.
ABSTRACT Delirium is common in intensive care unit patients and is associated with worse outcome.
To identify early risk factors for delirium in patients admitted to the intensive care unit following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT).
An observational study of patients admitted to the intensive care unit from January 2000 to May 2010 for elective or semi-elective OLT was conducted. The primary end point was delirium in the intensive care unit. Pre- and post-transplantation and intraoperative factors potentially associated with this outcome were examined.
Of the 281 patients included in the study, 28 (10.03%) developed delirium in the intensive care unit at a median of two days (interquartile range one to seven days) after OLT. According to multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for delirium were intraoperative transfusion of packed red blood cells (OR 1.15 [95% CI 1.01 to 1.18]), renal replacement therapy during the pretransplantation period (OR 13.12 [95% CI 2.82 to 72.12]) and Acute Physiologic and Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score (OR per unit increase 1.10 [95% CI 1.03 to 1.29]). Using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for baseline covariates, delirium was associated with an almost twofold risk of remaining in hospital, a fourfold increased risk of dying in hospital and an almost threefold increased rate of death by one year.
Intraoperative transfusion of packed red blood cells, pretransplantation renal replacement therapy and APACHE II score are predictors for the development of delirium in intensive care unit patients post-OLT and are associated with increased hospital lengths of stay and mortality.
SourceAvailable from: Constantine Karvellas[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To provide an update on the recent publications for the management and prognostication of critically ill cirrhotic patients before and after liver transplant. The CLIF Acute-oN-ChrONicLIver Failure in Cirrhosis (CANONIC) study recently derived an evidence-based definition of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF): hepatic decompensation; organ failure [predefined by the Chronic Liver Failure-Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (CLIF-SOFA)]; and high 28-day mortality rate. Although Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) appears to be more accurate in predicting ICU and hospital mortality in ACLF patients, CLIF-SOFA has been derived specifically for critically ill cirrhotic patients, including those not receiving mechanical ventilation. Recent data suggest that a lower transfusion target in esophageal variceal bleeding (<7 g/l) is safe. Newly defined 'cirrhosis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI)' correlates with mortality, organ failure and length of hospital stay. Although the SOFA score appears to perform better than liver-specific scoring systems [Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) and Child-Pugh scores], neither MELD nor SOFA appears to independently predict posttransplant survival; however, correlated with lengths of ICU and hospital stay. For patients declined for liver transplant, palliative care referral and appropriate goals of care are rarely achieved. New definitions for ACLF, cirrhosis-associated AKI and the CLIF-SOFA may improve the discrimination between survivors and nonsurvivors with ACLF. Predicting futility postliver transplant based on preliver transplant severity of illness still poses significant challenges.Current opinion in critical care 02/2014; DOI:10.1097/MCC.0000000000000067 · 3.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Delirium is one of the main causes of increased length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay among patients who have undergone living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). We aimed to evaluate risk factors for delirium after LDLT as well as to investigate whether delirium impacts the length of ICU and hospital stay. Seventy-eight patients who underwent LDLT during the period January 2010 to December 2012 at a single medical center were enrolled. The Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) scale was used to diagnose delirium. Preoperative, postoperative, and hematologic factors were included as potential risk factors for developing delirium. During the study period, delirium was diagnosed in 37 (47.4%) patients after LDLT. The mean onset of symptoms occurred 7.0±5.5 days after surgery and the mean duration of symptoms was 5.0±2.6 days. The length of stay in the ICU for patients with delirium (39.8±28.1 days) was significantly longer than that for patients without delirium (29.3±19.0 days) (p<0.05). Risk factors associated with delirium included history of alcohol abuse [odds ratio (OR) = 6.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.85-22.06], preoperative hepatic encephalopathy (OR = 4.45, 95% CI: 1.36-14.51), APACHE II score ≥16 (OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.71-2.56), and duration of endotracheal intubation ≥5 days (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.52-2.23). History of alcohol abuse, preoperative hepatic encephalopathy, APACHE II scores ≥16 and endotracheal intubation ≥5 days were predictive of developing delirium in the ICU following liver transplantation surgery and were associated with increased length of ICU and hospital stay.PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e96676. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0096676 · 3.53 Impact Factor