Loss of function of KIAA2022 causes mild to severe intellectual disability with an autism spectrum disorder and impairs neurite outgrowth.
ABSTRACT Existence of a discrete new X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) syndrome due to KIAA2022 deficiency was questioned by disruption of KIAA2022 by an X-chromosome pericentric inversion in a XLID family we reported in 2004. Three additional families with likely pathogenic KIAA2022 mutations were discovered within the frame of systematic parallel sequencing of familial cases of XLID or in the context of routine array-CGH evaluation of sporadic ID cases. The c.186delC and c.3597dupA KIAA2022 truncating mutations were identified by X-chromosome exome sequencing, while array-CGH discovered a 70kb microduplication encompassing KIAA2022 exon 1 in the third family. This duplication decreased KIAA2022 mRNA level in patients' lymphocytes by 60%. Detailed clinical examination of all patients, including the two initially reported, indicated moderate to severe ID with autistic features, strabismus in all patients, with no specific dysmorphic features other than a round face in infancy, and no structural brain abnormalities on MRI. Interestingly, the patient with decreased KIAA2022 expression had only mild ID with severe language delay and repetitives behaviors falling in the range of an autism dpectrum disorder. Since little is known on KIAA2022 function, we conducted morphometric studies in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. We found that siRNA-mediated KIAA2022 knockdown resulted in marked impairment in neurite outgrowth including both the dendrites and the axons, suggesting a major role for KIAA2022 in neuron development and brain function.
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ABSTRACT: Proteins derived from the Kalrn gene, encoding 2 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) domains, affect dendritic and axonal morphogenesis. The roles of endogenous Kalirin-9 (Kal9) and Kalirin-12 (Kal12), the Kalrn isoforms expressed before synaptogenesis, have not been studied in neurite growth and maturation during early development. The Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster orthologues of Kalrn encode proteins equivalent to Kal9 but, lacking a kinase domain, neither organism expresses a protein equivalent to Kal12. Both in vivo and in vitro analyses of cortical neurons from total Kalrn knockout mice, lacking all major Kalirin isoforms, revealed a simplified dendritic arbor and reduced neurite length. Using isoform-specific shRNAs to reduce Kal9 or Kal12 expression in hippocampal cultures resulted in stunted dendritic outgrowth and branching in vitro, without affecting axonal polarity. Exposing hippocampal cultures to inhibitors of the first GEF domain of Kalirin (ITX3, Z62954982) blunted neurite outgrowth and branching, confirming its essential role, without altering the morphology of neurons not expressing Kalrn. In addition, exogenous expression of the active kinase domain unique to Kal12 increased neurite number and length, whereas that of the inactive kinase domain decreased neurite growth. Our results demonstrate that both endogenous Kal9 and endogenous Kal12 contribute to dendritic maturation in early development.Cerebral Cortex 08/2014; DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhu182 · 8.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Current catalogs of brain expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) are incomplete and the findings do not replicate well across studies. All existing cortical eQTL studies are small and emphasize the need for a meta-analysis. We performed a meta-analysis of 424 brain samples across five studies to identify regulatory variants influencing gene expression in human cortex. We identified 3584 genes in autosomes and chromosome X with false discovery rate q<0.05 whose expression was significantly associated with DNA sequence variation. Consistent with previous eQTL studies, local regulatory variants tended to occur symmetrically around transcription start sites and the effect was more evident in studies with large sample sizes. In contrast to random SNPs, we observed that significant eQTLs were more likely to be near 5'-untranslated regions and intersect with regulatory features. Permutation-based enrichment analysis revealed that SNPs associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were enriched among brain eQTLs. Genes with significant eQTL evidence were also strongly associated with diseases from OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) and the NHGRI (National Human Genome Research Institute) genome-wide association study catalog. Surprisingly, we found that a large proportion (28%) of ~1000 autosomal genes encoding proteins needed for mitochondrial structure or function were eQTLs (enrichment P-value=1.3 × 10(-)(9)), suggesting a potential role for common genetic variation influencing the robustness of energy supply in brain and a possible role in the etiology of some psychiatric disorders. These systematically generated eQTL information should be a valuable resource in determining the functional mechanisms of brain gene expression and the underlying biology of associations with psychiatric disorders.Translational Psychiatry 10/2014; 4:e459. DOI:10.1038/tp.2014.96 · 4.36 Impact Factor