Nursing Management of Patients With Metastatic Melanoma Receiving Ipilimumab
ABSTRACT A 46-year-old Caucasian male named N.M. was diagnosed in March 2002 with melanoma of the trunk. The melanoma was resected and a left axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy was negative for malignant cells. Three years later, melanoma recurred to the left axillary lymph nodes, which were subsequently dissected. No adjuvant therapy was administered. In November 2007, a computed tomography (CT) scan showed multiple lesions (2-6 cm) in the abdomen wall, peritoneum, and small bowel, and a mass of 10 cm in the left axillary region. N.M. was enrolled into a phase III trial and received 850 mg/m2 dacarbazine plus 10 mg/kg ipilimumab at weeks 1, 4, 7, and 10, followed by dacarbazine alone every three weeks through week 22.
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ABSTRACT: Up-to-date statistics on cancer occurrence and outcome are essential for the planning and evaluation of programmes for cancer control. Since the relevant information for 2008 is not generally available as yet, we used statistical models to estimate incidence and mortality data for 25 cancers in 40 European countries (grouped and individually) in 2008. The calculations are based on published data. If not collected, national rates were estimated from national mortality data and incidence and mortality data provided by local cancer registries of the same or neighbouring country. The estimated 2008 rates were applied to the corresponding country population estimates for 2008 to obtain an estimate of the numbers of cancer cases and deaths in Europe in 2008. There were an estimated 3.2 million new cases of cancer and 1.7 million deaths from cancer in 2008. The most common cancers were colorectal cancers (436,000 cases, 13.6% of the total), breast cancer (421,000, 13.1%), lung cancer (391,000, 12.2%) and prostate cancer (382,000, 11.9%). The most common causes of death from cancer were lung cancer (342,000 deaths, 19.9% of the total), colorectal cancer (212,000 deaths, 12.3%), breast cancer (129,000, 7.5%) and stomach cancer (117,000, 6.8%).European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 03/2010; 46(4):765-81. DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2009.12.014 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Identification of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) as a key negative regulator of T-cell activity led to development of the fully human, monoclonal antibody ipilimumab to block CTLA-4 and potentiate antitumor T-cell responses. Animal studies first provided insight into the ability of an anti-CTLA-4 antibody to cause tumor regression, particularly in combination regimens. Early clinical studies defined ipilimumab pharmacokinetics and possibilities for combinability. Phase II trials of ipilimumab in advanced melanoma showed objective responses, but a greater number of patients had disease stabilization. In a phase III trial, ipilimumab was the first agent to demonstrate an improvement in overall survival in patients with previously treated, advanced melanoma. The adverse event profile associated with ipilimumab was primarily immune-related. Adverse events can be severe and life-threatening, but most were reversible using treatment guidelines. Ipilimumab monotherapy exhibits conventional and new patterns of activity in advanced melanoma, with a delayed separation of Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The observation of some new response patterns with ipilimumab, which are not captured by standard response criteria, led to novel criteria for the evaluation of immunotherapy in solid tumors. Overall, lessons from the development of ipilimumab contributed to a new clinical paradigm for cancer immunotherapy evolved by the Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium.Seminars in Oncology 10/2010; 37(5):533-46. DOI:10.1053/j.seminoncol.2010.09.015 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Malignant melanoma is rising faster in incidence than any other malignancy. Long-term remission or "cure" is rare and is almost exclusively limited to therapies that stimulate an immune antitumor response. Ipilimumab is a novel targeted human immunostimulatory monoclonal antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen4 (CTLA-4), an immune-inhibitory site expressed on activated T cells. Ipilimumab is well tolerated as an outpatient infusion therapy. Multiple studies have confirmed significant antimelanoma activity. A randomized trial has documented a survival benefit when ipilimumab was compared to a gp-100 vaccine only arm. The unique mechanism of action of ipilimumab makes assessment of response by conventional criteria difficult. Benefit from ipilimumab can occur after what would be considered progression with World Health Oganization (WHO) or Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria. New immune response criteria have been proposed. Therapeutic responses peak between 12 and 24 weeks, with slow responses continuing up to and beyond 12 months. The major drug- related adverse side effects (10%-15% grade 3 or above) are immune-related and consist most commonly of rash, colitis, hypophysitis, thyroiditis, and hepatitis. Colonic perforation can occur and patients with diarrhea have to be monitored carefully with strict adherence to treatment algorithms. Algorithms for the treatment of other adverse side effects have been developed. The treatment of immune-related side effects with immunosuppressive agents, such as corticosteroids, does not appear to impair antitumor response. With proper monitoring and management of side effects, ipilimumab is an extremely safe drug to administer. The benefits of ipilimumab will most certainly extend to other malignancies in the near future.Seminars in Oncology 10/2010; 37(5):440-9. DOI:10.1053/j.seminoncol.2010.09.004 · 3.94 Impact Factor