The Role of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Health and Medicine
—To develop consensus-based recommendations guiding the conduct of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to improve the comparability and quality of studies. The recommendations apply to analyses intended to inform the allocation of health care resources across a broad range of conditions and interventions. This article, first in a 3-part series, discusses how this goal affects the conduct and use of analyses. The remaining articles will outline methodological and reporting recommendations, respectively.
Available from: Jo Dewulf
- "However, it shows that people have difficulties assigning numerical values to different health states. Therefore two specific methods are generally used (Gold et al., 1996). ● The paired-comparison, where respondents are required to indicate their preference for one out of two proposed health states. "
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ABSTRACT: The effects of a pharmaceutical treatment have until now been evaluated by the field of Health Economics on the patient health benefits, expressed in Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) versus the monetary costs. However, there is also a Human Health burden associated with this process, resulting from emissions that originate from the pharmaceutical production processes, Use Phase and End of Life (EoL) disposal of the medicine. This Human Health burden is evaluated by the research field of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and expressed in Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), a metric similar to the QALY.
The need for a new framework presents itself in which both the positive and negative health effects of a pharmaceutical treatment are integrated into a net Human Health effect. To do so, this article reviews the methodologies of both Health Economics and the area of protection Human Health of the LCA methodology and proposes a conceptual framework on which to base an integration of both health effects. Methodological issues such as the inclusion of future costs and benefits, discounting and age weighting are discussed. It is suggested to use the structure of an LCA as a backbone to cover all methodological challenges involved in the integration. The possibility of monetizing both Human Health benefits and burdens is explored. The suggested approach covers the main methodological aspects that should be considered in an integrated assessment of the health effects of a pharmaceutical treatment.
Environmental Research 10/2015; 144:19-31. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2015.10.027 · 4.37 Impact Factor
Available from: informahealthcare.com
- "Additionally, economic analyses has been shown to inform clinical practice decisions in major institutions like hospitals, in determining policies in the health care system (Backhouse et al. 1992; Elixhauser et al. 1993; Russell et al. 1996). "
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ABSTRACT: Abstract In an era of expanding health sectors and rising costs, doctors are expected to have a working knowledge of health economics to better use resources and improve outcomes and quality of health care. This article recognizes the dearth of knowledge and application of economic analyses in medical education and clinical practice in Saudi Arabia. In particular, it highlights the desirability of knowledge of health economics in ensuring certain competencies in medical education and the rationale for inviting doctors to apply knowledge of economics in Saudi Arabia. In addition, the article discusses challenges that hinder integrating health economics into clinical practice. Furthermore, the article typifies some of the important economic phenomena that physicians need to discern. Besides, the article provides implications for incorporating economic analysis into medical education and clinical practice in Saudi Arabia. Finally, the article concludes by demonstrating how health economics can enhance doctors' knowledge and recommends the country to move towards integrating health economics into medical education and clinical practice for best practice.
Medical Teacher 02/2015; 37(S1):1-5. DOI:10.3109/0142159X.2015.1006611 · 1.68 Impact Factor
Available from: ijhsnet.com
- "With medical cost dramatically increasing and the restriction of limited resources, evaluation of the cost and cost-effectiveness of therapies is a very important aspect in the decisionmaking (Russelletal., 1996). "
01/2015; 3(1). DOI:10.15640/ijhs.v3n1a11
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