Oligodendrocyte positioning in cerebral cortex is independent of projection neuron layering.
ABSTRACT The factors affecting normal oligodendrocyte positioning in the cerebral cortex are unknown. Apart from the white matter, the highest numbers of oligodendrocytes in the rodent cortex are found in Layers V/VI, where the infragranular neurons normally reside. Few, if any, oligodendrocytes are normally found in the superficial cortical layers. To test whether or not this asymmetric positioning of oligodendrocytes is linked to the lamina positions of Layer V/VI projection neurons, mutant mice that cause neuronal layer inversion were examined. In three lines of mutant mice (Reeler, disabled-1, and p35) examined, representing two different genetic signaling pathways, the oligodendrocyte distribution was altered from an asymmetric to a symmetric distribution pattern. Unlike cortical neurons that are inverted in these mutant mice, the lack of oligodendrocyte inversion suggests a decoupling of the genetic mechanisms governing neuronal versus oligodendrocyte patterning. We conclude that oligodendrocyte positioning is not linked to the layer positions of V/VI projection neurons.
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ABSTRACT: In the mammalian cortex, neurons and glia form a patterned structure across six layers whose complex cytoarchitectonic arrangement is likely to contribute to cognition. We sequenced transcriptomes from layers 1-6b of different areas (primary and secondary) of the adult (postnatal day 56) mouse somatosensory cortex to understand the transcriptional levels and functional repertoires of coding and noncoding loci for cells constituting these layers. A total of 5,835 protein-coding genes and 66 noncoding RNA loci are differentially expressed ("patterned") across the layers, on the basis of a machine-learning model (naive Bayes) approach. Layers 2-6b are each associated with specific functional and disease annotations that provide insights into their biological roles. This new resource (http://genserv.anat.ox.ac.uk/layers) greatly extends currently available resources, such as the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas and microarray data sets, by providing quantitative expression levels, by being genome-wide, by including novel loci, and by identifying candidate alternatively spliced transcripts that are differentially expressed across layers.Neuron 08/2011; 71(4):605-16. · 15.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As part of a computer-based cockpit design and analysis workstation, a prototype training assessment tool called the Training Assessment Module (TAM) has been developed which estimates the training resources and time imposed by the anticipated mission and cockpit design. Embedding instructional system and training analysis domain knowledge in a production system environment, this tool allows crew station designers to readily determine the training ramifications of their choices for cockpit equipment, mission tasks, and operator qualifications. Initial results have been validated by comparison to an existing training program, demonstrating the tool's utility as a conceptual design aid and illuminating areas for future development. The combined ART and Symbolics Common Lisp environment was found to be ideally suited to quickly capturing and representing the target domain. Despite its rather small size in comparison to other knowledge-based systems, TAM's initial recommendations show a very high correlation with empirical data from the AH-64 qualification courseSystems, Man and Cybernetics, 1989. Conference Proceedings., IEEE International Conference on; 12/1989
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ABSTRACT: Highlights ► Online atlas of genome-wide transcription across neocortical layers ► Significant, replicated associations between disease genes and specific layers ► Widespread isoform switching across layers ► LincRNAs conserved, coexpressed across layers with neighboring protein-coding genesNeuron 08/2011; 71(4):605–616. · 15.77 Impact Factor