Cell Cycle-Dependent Effects of 3,3′-Diindolylmethane on Proliferation and Apoptosis of Prostate Cancer Cells

Vattikuti Urology Institute, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, USA.
Journal of Cellular Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.87). 04/2009; 219(1):94-9. DOI: 10.1002/jcp.21650
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies have shown that a diet rich in fruits and cruciferous vegetables is associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and its dimeric product 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) have been shown to exhibit anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. Recently, we have reported that a formulated DIM (B-DIM) induced apoptosis and inhibited growth, angiogenesis, and invasion of prostate cancer cells by regulating Akt, NF-kappaB, VEGF and the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway. However, the precise molecular mechanism(s) by which B-DIM inhibits prostate cancer cell growth and induces apoptosis have not been fully elucidated. Most importantly, it is not known how B-DIM affects cell cycle regulators and proteasome activity, which are critically involved in cell growth and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of B-DIM on proteasome activity and AR transactivation with respect to B-DIM-mediated cell cycle regulation and induction of apoptosis in both androgen-sensitive LNCaP and androgen-insensitive C4-2B prostate cancer cells. We believe that our results show for the first time the cell cycle-dependent effects of B-DIM on proliferation and apoptosis of synchronized prostate cancer cells progressing from G(1) to S phase. B-DIM inhibited this progression by induction of p27(Kip1) and down-regulation of AR. We also show for the first time that B-DIM inhibits proteasome activity in S phase, leading to the inactivation of NF-kappaB signaling and induction of apoptosis in LNCaP and C4-2B cells. These results suggest that B-DIM could be a potent agent for the prevention and/or treatment of both hormone sensitive as well as hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

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    ABSTRACT: Cruciferous vegetables including diindolylmethane (DIM) have been shown to have anticancer activity. Especially, DIM-pPhBr and DIM-pPhF used in this study was reported to have more effective and less toxic effects than DIM. However, there is no report presenting their anti-tumorigenic activity in oral cancer. In the present study, we examined the effects of DIM-pPhBr and DIM-pPhF on the cell proliferation and apoptosis in KB human oral cancer cells. DIM-pPhBr and DIM-pPhF decreased cell proliferation and induced apoptosis evidenced by western blot analysis, DAPI staining and sub- population. This provides the first evidence that DIM-pPhBr and DIM-pPhF originating from Cruciferous vegetables induce apoptotic cell death in human oral cancer cells to inhibit cancer cell proliferation.
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    ABSTRACT: 3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM), a major acid-condensation product or metabolite of indole-3-carbinol which is found in cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to have anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and multiple immune stimulating effects. However, its function in bone metabolism is poorly understood. This study evaluated the effect of DIM on bone mass in mice under physiological and pathological conditions. Eight-week-old female mice received injections of a vehicle or 0.1mg/g of DIM, twice a week for four weeks. We found that DIM treatment significantly increased bone mass as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and micro-computed tomography (μCT). Further, Bone histomorphometric analyses showed that this treatment significantly reduced bone resorption parameters, but did not increase bone formation parameters. Furthermore, we use ovariectomized (OVX)-induced osteoporotic mouse model, and explore function of DIM in skeletal pathological processes. Bone phenotype analyses revealed that the administration of DIM in this study effectively prevented OVX-induced bone loss resulting from increased bone resorption. Our results demonstrated that DIM increased bone mass by suppressing osteoclastic bone resorption in bone metabolism under both physiological and pathological conditions. Accordingly, DIM may be of value in the treatment and the possible prevention of bone diseases characterized by bone loss, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: Cruciferous vegetables belong to the plant family that has flowers with four equal-sized petals in the pattern of a crucifer cross. These vegetables are an abundant source of dietary phytochemicals, including glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products such as indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM). By 2013, the total number of natural glucosinolates that have been documented is estimated to be 132. Recently, cruciferous vegetable intake has garnered great interest for its multiple health benefits such as anticancer, antiviral infections, human sex hormone regulation, and its therapeutic and preventive effects on prostate cancer and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). DIM is a hydrolysis product of glucosinolates and has been used in various trials. This review is to provide an insight into the latest developments of DIM in treating or preventing both prostate cancer and HGPIN.