SHORT COMMUNICATION: Diffuse Changes in Cortical Thickness in Pediatric Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602, USA.
Journal of Neurotrauma (Impact Factor: 3.71). 12/2008; 25(11):1343-5. DOI: 10.1089/neu.2008.0615
Source: PubMed


Generalized whole brain volume loss has been well documented in moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), as has diffuse cerebral atrophy based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetric methods where white matter may be more selectively affected than gray matter. However, specific regional differences in gray matter thickness of the cortical mantle have not been previously examined. As such, cortical thickness was assessed using FreeSurfer software to identify regions of significant gray matter cortical thinning in MRI scans of 16 young TBI subjects (age range, 9-16 years) compared to 16 demographically matched controls. Significant cortical thinning was observed globally in the TBI group compared to the cohort of typically developing children. Reduced cortical thickness was related to reported deficits in working memory. TBI-induced cortical thickness reductions are probably due to a combination of focal and diffuse effects and have implications for the neurobehavioral sequelae of TBI.

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Available from: Jill Hunter, Oct 07, 2015
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    • "This can be interpreted as growth retardation due to the trauma. Indeed, generalized atrophic changes resulting in reduced overall brain volume has been documented in moderate-to-severe pediatric traumatic brain injury [39]–[40]. In addition to this focal effect on brain, a general growth retardation due to post-traumatic endocrine disturbance [41] could be raised here. "
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    ABSTRACT: The Qafzeh site (Lower Galilee, Israel) has yielded the largest Levantine hominin collection from Middle Palaeolithic layers which were dated to circa 90-100 kyrs BP or to marine isotope stage 5b-c. Within the hominin sample, Qafzeh 11, circa 12-13 yrs old at death, presents a skull lesion previously attributed to a healed trauma. Three dimensional imaging methods allowed us to better explore this lesion which appeared as being a frontal bone depressed fracture, associated with brain damage. Furthermore the endocranial volume, smaller than expected for dental age, supports the hypothesis of a growth delay due to traumatic brain injury. This trauma did not affect the typical human brain morphology pattern of the right frontal and left occipital petalia. It is highly probable that this young individual suffered from personality and neurological troubles directly related to focal cerebral damage. Interestingly this young individual benefited of a unique funerary practice among the south-western Asian burials dated to Middle Palaeolithic.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e102822. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0102822 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "This is perhaps not surprising, given that the social brain involves a broad array of spatially-remote regions thought to interact as a network (Adolphs, 2001; Johnson et al., 2005). Individual differences in overall brain maturation should involve many of these regions, as should the diffuse atrophy that occurs after more severe TBI (Bigler et al., 2010; Merkley et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the associations among brain volumes, theory of mind (ToM), peer relationships, and psychosocial adjustment in children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants included 8- to 13-year-old children, 82 with TBI and 61 with orthopedic injuries (OIs). Children completed three measures of ToM. Classmates provided ratings of participants’ peer relationships, acceptance, and friendships. Parents rated children’s psychosocial adjustment. MRI was used to determine brain volumes. Brain volumes were associated with ToM, which in turn was associated with peer rejection/victimization. Peer rejection/victimization in the classroom was associated with peer acceptance, friendship, social withdrawal, and general psychopathology. Brain volumes, ToM, peer relationships, and social adjustment show significant links among children with TBI and those with OI. The findings support a multilevel model of social competence in childhood TBI.
    01/2014; 2(1):97–107. DOI:10.1177/2167702613499734
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    • "In addition, differences in cortical thickness measured by MRI correlate with functionally relevant behavioral/cognitive dysfunction in moderate and severe TBI cohorts (McCauley et al. 2010; Merkley et al. 2008; Palacios et al. 2013; Wilde et al. 2012). These findings emphasize the potential of cortical thickness measures to elucidate functionally relevant brain-behavior relationships that could lead to improved treatment in these patients. "
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    ABSTRACT: Though cortical abnormalities have been demonstrated in moderate and severe traumatic brain injured (TBI) patients, there have been no studies examining cortical changes following blast related mild TBI (mTBI). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects and functional relevance of blast mTBI on cortical thickness in a small cohort of carefully screened blast injured US Service Members (SM). Twelve SM with mTBI acquired through blast injury were compared to 11 demographically matched control SM without TBI. Both mTBI and control participants were active duty and had completed a combat deployment. Subjects underwent MRI examination and the T1 weighted anatomic images were processed using the FreeSurfer suite of tools. Cortical thickness maps were compared between groups and examined for relationships with time since injury (TSI). Utilizing a large database of functional imaging results (BrainMap), significant regions of interest (ROI) were used to determine the behavioral profiles most consistently associated with the specific ROI. In addition, clinical variables were examined as part of post-hoc analysis of functional relevance. Group comparisons controlling for age demonstrated several significant clusters of cortical thinning for the blast injured SM. After multiple comparisons correction (False Discovery Rate (FDR)), two left hemisphere clusters remained significant (left superior temporal (STG) and frontal (SFG) gyri). No clusters were significantly correlated with TSI after FDR correction. Behavioral analysis for the STG and SFG clusters demonstrated three significant behavioral/cognitive sub-domains, each associated with audition and language. Blast injured SMs demonstrated distinct areas of cortical thinning in the STG and SFG. These areas have been previously shown to be associated with audition and language. Post-hoc analyses of clinical records demonstrated significant abnormal audiology reports for the blast injured SM suggesting that the thinning in these ROIs might be related to injury to the external auditory system rather than direct injury to the brain from the blast. It is clear that additional replication is needed in much larger cohorts. Importantly, the combination of imaging tools and methods in this study successfully demonstrated the potential to define unique ROIs and functional correlates that can be used to design future studies.
    Brain Imaging and Behavior 10/2013; 8(1). DOI:10.1007/s11682-013-9257-9 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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