Correction: Phenotypic Heterogeneity of Genomically-Diverse Isolates of Streptococcus mutans

Department of Oral Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 11/2013; 8(4):e61358. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061358
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT High coverage, whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing of 57 geographically- and genetically-diverse isolates of Streptococcus mutans from individuals of known dental caries status was recently completed. Of the 57 sequenced strains, fifteen isolates, were selected based primarily on differences in gene content and phenotypic characteristics known to affect virulence and compared with the reference strain UA159. A high degree of variability in these properties was observed between strains, with a broad spectrum of sensitivities to low pH, oxidative stress (air and paraquat) and exposure to competence stimulating peptide (CSP). Significant differences in autolytic behavior and in biofilm development in glucose or sucrose were also observed. Natural genetic competence varied among isolates, and this was correlated to the presence or absence of competence genes, comCDE and comX, and to bacteriocins. In general strains that lacked the ability to become competent possessed fewer genes for bacteriocins and immunity proteins or contained polymorphic variants of these genes. WGS sequence analysis of the pan-genome revealed, for the first time, components of a Type VII secretion system in several S. mutans strains, as well as two putative ORFs that encode possible collagen binding proteins located upstream of the cnm gene, which is associated with host cell invasiveness. The virulence of these particular strains was assessed in a wax-worm model. This is the first study to combine a comprehensive analysis of key virulence-related phenotypes with extensive genomic analysis of a pathogen that evolved closely with humans. Our analysis highlights the phenotypic diversity of S. mutans isolates and indicates that the species has evolved a variety of adaptive strategies to persist in the human oral cavity and, when conditions are favorable, to initiate disease.

Download full-text


Available from: Tristan Lefebure, Mar 12, 2014
  • Source
    • "revealed that the genetic arrangement and genomic location of cnaB-cbpA-cnm was conserved among all invasive strains in our collection as well as in strains with full genome sequences available (Aikawa et al., 2012; Song et al., 2012; Palmer et al., 2013). Previous studies revealed that expression of cnm is directly linked to the ability of S. mutans to avidly bind to collagen and laminin and to adhere to and invade endothelial cells (Sato et al., 2004; Abranches et al., 2011; Nomura et al., 2012; Lapirattanakul et al., 2013). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cnm, a collagen- and laminin-binding protein present in a subset of S. mutans strains, mediates binding to extracellular matrices (ECM), intracellular invasion and virulence in the Galleria mellonella model. Antibodies raised against Cnm were used to confirm expression and the cell surface localization of Cnm in the highly invasive OMZ175 strain. Sequence analysis identified two additional genes (cnaB and cbpA) encoding putative surface proteins immediately upstream of cnm. Inactivation of cnaB and cbpA in OMZ175, individually or in combination did not decrease the ability of this highly invasive and virulent strain to bind to different ECM proteins, invade human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC), or to kill G. mellonella. Similarly, expression of cnaB and cbpA in the cnm(-) strain UA159 revealed that these genes did not enhance Cnm-related phenotypes. However, integration of cnm in the chromosome of UA159 significantly increased its ability to bind to collagen and laminin, invade HCAEC, and kill G. mellonella. Moreover, the presence of antibodies against Cnm nearly abolished the ability of OMZ175 to bind to collagen and laminin and invade HCAECs, and significantly protected G. mellonella against OMZ175 infection. We concluded that neither CnaB nor CbpA are necessary for the expression of Cnm-related traits. We also provided definitive evidence that Cnm is an important virulence factor and a suitable target for the development of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies to combat invasive S. mutans strains. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    09/2013; 29(1). DOI:10.1111/mom.12041
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In infection experiments with genetically distinct Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains, we identified clade-specific virulence patterns in human primary macrophages and in mice infected by the aerosol route, both reflecting relevant model systems. Exclusively human-adapted M. tuberculosis lineages, also termed clade I, comprising “modern” lineages, such as Beijing and Euro-American Haarlem strains, showed a significantly enhanced capability to grow compared to that of clade II strains, which include “ancient” lineages, such as, e.g., East African Indian or M. africanum strains. However, a simple correlation of inflammatory response profiles with strain virulence was not apparent. Overall, our data reveal three different pathogenic profiles: (i) strains of the Beijing lineage are characterized by low uptake, low cytokine induction, and a high replicative potential, (ii) strains of the Haarlem lineage by high uptake, high cytokine induction, and high growth rates, and (iii) EAI strains by low uptake, low cytokine induction, and a low replicative potential. Our findings have significant implications for our understanding of host-pathogen interaction and factors that modulate the outcomes of infections. Future studies addressing the underlying mechanisms and clinical implications need to take into account the diversity of both the pathogen and the host.
    mBio 06/2013; 4(4). DOI:10.1128/mBio.00250-13 · 6.88 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is now clear that the most common oral diseases, dental caries and periodontitis, are caused by mixed-species communities rather than by individual pathogens working in isolation. Oral streptococci are central to these disease processes since they are frequently the first microorganisms to colonize oral surfaces and they are numerically the dominant microorganisms in the human mouth. Numerous interactions between oral streptococci and other bacteria have been documented. These are thought to be critical for the development of mixed-species oral microbial communities and for the transition from oral health to disease. Recent metagenomic studies are beginning to shed light on the co-occurrence patterns of streptococci with other oral bacteria. Refinements in microscopy techniques and biofilm models are providing detailed insights into the spatial distribution of streptococci in oral biofilms. Targeted genetic manipulation is increasingly being applied for the analysis of specific genes and networks that modulate interspecies interactions. From this work, it is clear that streptococci produce a range of extracellular factors that promote their integration into mixed-species communities and enable them to form social networks with neighboring taxa. These "community integration factors" include coaggregation-mediating adhesins and receptors, small signaling molecules such as peptides or autoinducer-2, bacteriocins, by-products of metabolism including hydrogen peroxide and lactic acid, and a range of extracellular enzymes. Here, we provide an overview of various types of community interactions between oral streptococci and other microorganisms, and we consider the possibilities for the development of new technologies to interfere with these interactions to help control oral biofilms.
    Advances in applied microbiology 01/2014; 87:43-110. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-800261-2.00002-5 · 2.24 Impact Factor
Show more