Correlation of C-Reactive Protein with Survival and Radiographic Response to First-Line Platinum-Based Chemotherapy in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
ABSTRACT This study was conducted to assess the prognostic role of regular measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) during platinum-based first-line therapy.
A total of 210 patients were retrospectively analyzed regarding CRP values, infections, histological type, stage, performance status, gender, age, body mass index and survival. Additionally, in 88 of these patients, changes of CRP values were correlated with response to chemotherapy by radiographic imaging.
Elevation of CRP prior to the first cycle was an adverse prognostic factor for overall survival. Comparing CRP values before and after 2 cycles correlated with response and identified patient groups with a remarkable difference of overall survival (18.8 vs. 7.5 months). Normalization of CRP was associated with a low risk for progression, whereas patients with an increase of CRP values of more than 25% showed a progressive disease in most cases. Besides performance status, no correlation of CRP with other clinical data was found.
Measurement of CRP before initiation and during a platinum-based chemotherapy can provide prognostic information for the individual patient with advanced NSCLC and is able to support or even replace assessment of response by radiographic imaging in defined situations.
- SourceAvailable from: Brendon Coventry[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The search for a suitable biomarker which indicates immune system responses in cancer patients has been long and arduous, but a widely known biomarker has emerged as a potential candidate for this purpose. C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is an acute-phase plasma protein that can be used as a marker for activation of the immune system. The short plasma half-life and relatively robust and reliable response to inflammation, make CRP an ideal candidate marker for inflammation. The high- sensitivity test for CRP, termed Low-Reactive Protein (LRP, L-CRP or hs-CRP), measures very low levels of CRP more accurately, and is even more reliable than standard CRP for this purpose. Usually, static sampling of CRP has been used for clinical studies and these can predict disease presence or recurrence, notably for a number of cancers. We have used frequent serial L-CRP measurements across three clinical laboratories in two countries and for different advanced cancers, and have demonstrated similar, repeatable observations of a cyclical variation in CRP levels in these patients. We hypothesise that these L-CRP oscillations are part of a homeostatic immune response to advanced malignancy and have some preliminary data linking the timing of therapy to treatment success. This article reviews CRP, shows some of our data and advances the reasoning for the hypothesis that explains the CRP cycles in terms of homeostatic immune regulatory cycles. This knowledge might also open the way for improved timing of treatment(s) for improved clinical efficacy.Journal of Translational Medicine 11/2009; 7(1):102. DOI:10.1186/1479-5876-7-102 · 3.99 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Disease progression in cancer is dependent on the complex interaction between the tumor and the host inflammatory response. There is substantial evidence in advanced cancer that host factors, such as weight loss, poor performance status and the host systemic inflammatory response, are linked, and the latter is an important tumor-stage-independent predictor of outcome. Indeed, the systemic inflammatory response, as evidenced by an elevated level of C-reactive protein, is now included in the definition of cancer cachexia. This review examines the role of the systemic inflammatory response in predicting survival in patients with primary operable cancer. Approximately 80 studies have evaluated the role of the systemic inflammatory response using biochemical or hematological markers, such as elevated C-reactive protein levels, hypoalbuminemia or increased white cell, neutrophil and platelet counts. Combinations of such factors have been used to derive simple inflammation-based prognostic scores, such as the Glasgow Prognostic Score, the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio and the platelet:lymphocyte ratio. This review demonstrates that there is now good evidence that preoperative measures of the systemic inflammatory response predict cancer survival, independent of tumor stage, in primary operable cancer. The evidence is particularly robust in colorectal (including liver metastases), gastro-esophageal and renal cancers. As described in this article, measurement of the systemic inflammatory response is simple, reliable and can be clinically incorporated into current staging algorithms. This will provide the clinician with a better prediction of outcome, and therefore better treatment allocation in patients with primary operable cancer. Furthermore, systemic inflammation-based markers and prognostic scores not only identify patients at risk, but also provide well-defined therapeutic targets for future clinical trials.Future Oncology 01/2010; 6(1):149-63. DOI:10.2217/fon.09.136 · 2.61 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although only the minority of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are suitable for surgical resection, it offers the best possibility of cure. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the clinicopathological status, the preoperative systemic inflammatory response, and survival in patients undergoing potentially curative resection for NSCLC. Data from 96 patients who underwent resection of NSCLC between 2000 and 2003 were collected retrospectively and that for 2004-2006 prospectively. All patients had Eastern cooperative oncology group performance status 0 or 1. No patient had T4, unresectable nodal or metastatic disease, and all macroscopic tumors were removed, with subsequent negative surgical margins. The majority of patients were older than 60 years (71%), men (57%), underwent a lobectomy (65%), and had tumor, node, metastasis stage I disease (66%). Of the markers of the systemic inflammatory response, white cell count, C-reactive protein, and albumin, only an elevated C-reactive protein (>10 mg/L) was associated with cancer-specific survival. On multivariate analysis, only tumor, node, metastasis stage (hazard ratio 1.88, 95% confidence interval 1.34-2.63, p < 0.001) and preoperative C-reactive protein (hazard ratio 1.67, 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.83, p < 0.05) retained independent significance. Those patients with a preoperative C-reactive protein concentration >10 mg/L had a median survival of 26.2 months compared with 75.9 months in those patients with a C-reactive protein < or =10 mg/L (p < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that the presence of a systemic inflammatory response predicts poor outcome in patients who have undergone potentially curative resection for lung cancer.Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 05/2010; 5(7):988-92. DOI:10.1097/JTO.0b013e3181da78f9 · 5.80 Impact Factor