Sensory and affective judgments of skin during inter- and intrapersonal touch
ABSTRACT Here we report two experiments that investigated the tactile perception of one's own skin (intrapersonal touch) versus the skin of other individuals (interpersonal touch). In the first experiment, thirteen female participants rated, along four perceptual attributes, the skin of their own palm and volar forearm, then that of several of the other participants. Ratings were made using visual analogue scales for perceived smoothness, softness, stickiness, and pleasantness. One's own skin was rated less pleasant than the skin of others. For both intra- and interpersonal touch, the forearm skin was rated smoother, softer, less sticky and more pleasant than the palmar skin. In the second experiment, ten pairs of female participants rated each other's palm and volar forearm skin, with the skin of the touched individual being assessed before and after the application of skin emollients that alter skin feel. As in the first experiment, the untreated skin of others was rated more pleasant than the participants' own skin, and the forearm versus palm differences were replicated. However, the emollient had generally larger effects on self-assessments than the assessments of others, and the site effect showed greater positive sensory and pleasantness increases for palm versus volar forearm. The disparate results of the two experiments suggest that attention, influenced by the ecological importance of the stimulus, is more important to assessment of touched skin than ownership of the skin or the contribution to self-touch made by the additional receptors in the passively touched skin. In both experiments, the pleasantness of touched skin was associated with the skin's perceived smoothness and softness, with weak trends toward negative associations with its perceived stickiness, consistent with prior research using inanimate surfaces (e.g., textiles and sandpapers).
- SourceAvailable from: Rafaela R Campagnoli
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- "Although mutual grooming in humans has received much less attention from researchers than in other primates, the assessment of mutual grooming in human dyadic relationships through a scale revealed that allogrooming is quite frequent in humans (Nelson and Geher, 2007). Indeed, caressing another person's skin is fairly pleasant for the toucher (Guest et al., 2009; Morrison et al., 2010). Actively touching something soft seems to be comforting since infancy. "
ABSTRACT: It is assumed that social bonds in humans have consequences for virtually all aspects of behavior. Social touch-based contact, particularly hand caressing, plays an important role in social bonding. Pre-programmed neural circuits likely support actions (or predispositions to act) toward caressing contacts. We searched for pre-set motor substrates toward caressing by exposing volunteers to bonding cues and having them gently stroke a very soft cloth, a caress-like movement. The bonding cues were pictures with interacting dyads and the control pictures presented non-interacting dyads. We focused on the readiness potential, an electroencephalographic marker of motor preparation that precedes movement execution. The amplitude of the readiness potential preceding the grasping of pleasant emotional-laden stimuli was previously shown to be reduced compared with neutral ones. Fingers flexor electromyography measured action output. The rationale here is that stroking the soft cloth when previously exposed to bonding cues, a compatible context, would result in smaller amplitudes of readiness potentials, as compared to the context with no such cues. Exposure to the bonding pictures increased subjective feelings of sociability and decreased feelings of isolation. Participants who more frequently engage in mutual caress/groom a " significant other " in daily life initiated the motor preparation earlier, reinforcing the caress-like nature of the task. As hypothesized, readiness potentials preceding the caressing of the soft cloth were significantly reduced under exposure to bonding as compared to control pictures. Furthermore, an increased fingers flexor electromyographic activity was identified under exposure to the former as compared to the latter pictures. The facilitatory effects are likely due to the recruitment of pre-set cortical motor repertoires related to caress-like movements, emphasizing the distinctiveness of neural signatures for caress-like movements.Frontiers in Psychology 01/2015; 6(16):1-9. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00016 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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- "The term " spontaneous " means these kinds of movements, particularly the triggering of the movements, is not based on deliberate decision-making processes of the respecting person. Contrary to other self-touching actions in experimental settings (Ackerley et al., 2012; Guest et al., 2009; Schutz-Bosbach et al., 2009; van Stralen et al., 2011; White et al., 2010) spontaneous STG are performed without a request by any other person and without any prompt by an external stimulus. These spontaneous movements are fairly common in everyday life and may be observed as a ubiquitous behaviour in people from all social classes. "
ABSTRACT: Spontaneous facial self-touch gestures (sFSTG) are performed manifold every day by every human being, primarily in stressful situations. These movements are not usually designed to communicate and are frequently accomplished with little or no awareness. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether sFSTG are associated with specific changes in the electrical brain activity that might indicate an involvement of regulatory emotional processes and working memory. 14 subjects performed a delayed memory task of complex haptic stimuli. The stimuli had to be explored and then remembered for a retention interval of 5 minutes. The retention interval was interrupted by unpleasant sounds from The International Affective Digitized Sounds and short sound-free periods. During the experiment a video stream of behavior, 19-channel EEG, and EMG (of forearm muscles) were recorded. Comparisons of the behavioral data and spectral power of different EEG frequency bands (theta, alpha, beta, and gamma) were conducted. An increase of sFSTG during the application of unpleasant sounds was observed. A significant increase of spectral theta and beta power was observed after exploration of the stimuli as well as after sFSTG in centro-parietal electrodes. The spectral theta power extremely decreased just before sFSTG during the retention interval. Contrary to this, no significant changes were detected in any of the frequencies when the spectral power before and after instructed facial self-touch movements (b-iFSTG and a-iFSTG) were compared. The changes of spectral theta power in the intervals before and after sFSTG in centro-parietal electrodes imply that sFSTG are associated with cortical regulatory processes in the domains of working memory and emotions.Brain research 04/2014; 1557. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2014.02.002 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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- "The emotional response to the different modes of touch may have been influenced by the social aspects of the stimulus presentation in addition to the self-generated forward modeling. That is, application of a stimulus by one individual to the skin of another represents social touch at some level, and is thus open to a variety of concomitants of social touch (Fisher, Rytting, & Heslin, 1976; Guest et al., 2009; Hertenstein, Keltner, App, Bulleit, & Jaskolka, 2006; Wilhelm, Kochar, Roth, & Gross, 2001). Overall, we found that emotional factor scores tended to be greater when touched by another, and though a sensory-based explanation for this appears likely, as discussed above, the possibility that higher-order cognitive processes were at play cannot be excluded. "
ABSTRACT: No comprehensive language exists that describes the experience of touch. Three experiments were conducted to take steps toward establishing a touch lexicon. In Experiment I, 49 participants rated how well 262 adjectives described sensory, emotional and evaluative aspects of touch. In Experiment II, participants rated pairwise dissimilarities of the most descriptive words of the set. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) solutions representing semantic-perceptual spaces underlying the words resulted in a touch perception task (TPT) consisting of 26 'sensory' attributes (e.g., bumpiness) and 14 'emotional' attributes (e.g., pleasurable). In Experiment III, 40 participants used the TPT to rate unseen textured materials that were moved actively or received passively against the index fingerpad, volar forearm, and two underarm sites. MDS confirmed similar semantic-perceptual structures in Experiments II and III. Factor analysis of Experiment III data decomposed the sensory attribute ratings into factors labeled Roughness, Slip, Pile and Firmness, and the emotional attribute ratings into Comfort and Arousal factors. Factor scores varied among materials and sites. Greater intensity of sensory and emotional responses were reported when participants passively, as opposed to actively, received stimuli. The sensitivity of the TPT in identifying body site and mode of touch-related perceptual differences affirms the validity and utility of this novel linguistic/perceptual tool.Attention Perception & Psychophysics 02/2011; 73(2):531-50. DOI:10.3758/s13414-010-0037-y · 2.15 Impact Factor