Do Atypical Antipsychotics Really Enhance Smoking Reduction More Than Typical Ones?
From the Department of Psychiatry, Yuli Hospital, Department of Health, Yuli Township, Hulien County, Taiwan.Journal of clinical psychopharmacology (Impact Factor: 3.24). 04/2013; 33(3). DOI: 10.1097/JCP.0b013e31828b2575
Whether atypical antipsychotics (AAs) can enhance smoking reduction in schizophrenic patients remains controversial because of methodological limitations in existing studies. This study explored whether certain types of antipsychotics predict smoking reduction in schizophrenic patients. Three hundred eight smoking, predominantly male schizophrenic patients (271/308 [88.9%]) participated in an 8-week open-label study with antismoking medications (high-dose, low-dose nicotine transdermal patch and bupropion). Antipsychotics were classified into (1) typical antipsychotics (TAs) and (2) AAs, including multiacting receptor-targeted antipsychotics (clozapine, olanzapine, and quetiapine), serotonin-dopamine antagonists (risperidone), D2/D3 receptor antagonists (amisulpride), and partial dopamine receptor agonists (aripiprazole). A general linear model was used to explore whether types of antipsychotic predict changes in the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and the score of the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) while controlling for confounding factors. The type of antipsychotic (TAs or AAs) was not significantly associated with smoking cessation (n = 21; χ = 1.8; df = 4; P = 0.77). Regarding smoking reduction, the type of antipsychotic was significantly predictive of a change in the CPD (P = 0.027; partial eta square = 0.055) and FTND scores (P = 0.002; partial eta square = 0.073). The 95% confidence intervals of the estimated means of change in the CPD and FTND scores did not contain zero only among subjects on TAs or clozapine.These findings suggest that TAs and clozapine enhance smoking reduction compared with nonclozapine atypical antipsychotics in schizophrenic patients. The mechanisms underlying the effects of various antipsychotics on smoking reduction remain unclear and warrant future study.
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ABSTRACT: Background and objective: Despite animal studies having shown a generalisation of the bupropion cue to cocaine, this drug has been used in cocaine abuse with mixed results. We here aimed at describing two cases which contradict current knowledge. Case reports: We describe two cases of former cocaine abusers who reported a cocaine-like sensation upon taking bupropion. Bupropion improved patients' depression without any increase in cocaine craving. One of the patients increased without doctor consultation his dose on an as needed basis. Conclusions: The issue of bupropion cue generalisation to cocaine needs further elucidation. People with past cocaine addiction need to be informed on the potential of bupropion to elicit cocaine-like cues and be invited to adhere to medical prescription, because bupropion has been associated with fatalities in some cases.Annali dell'Istituto superiore di sanita 12/2013; 49(4):402-405. DOI:10.4415/ANN_13_04_14 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Readiness to quit has been found to predict smoking-cessation outcomes in a general population. However, little is known about the relationship between the readiness to quit and smoking-reduction outcomes in patients with schizophrenia treated with pharmacological adjuvants. The aim of this study was to examine the association between readiness to quit and smoking-reduction outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. A total of 308 subjects using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) (N = 242) or bupropion (N = 66) participated in an 8-week smoking-reduction programme. Participants were categorised into precontemplators (N = 127), contemplators (N = 76) and preparators (N = 105) to quit smoking based on the transtheoretical model. There was a significant difference in change in number of cigarettes (NOC) (p = 0.007) and Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (FTND) score (nicotine dependence level) (p = 0.029) across the stages of change. A linear regression model revealed trend of increasing reduction in NOC and FTND scores in different stages of change (NOC: B = -1.22, t = -2.81, p = 0.005; FTND: B = -0.43, t = -2.57, p = 0.011). However, the 7-day point prevalence of abstinence was 5.5 % (18/308), but there was no significant association between stage of change and smoking cessation (p = 0.26), possibly due to a very small sample size of successful quitters. In summary, among a cohort of institutionalised chronic schizophrenia patients receiving 8-week NRT or bupropion, stage of change can predict smoking reduction and may serve as a useful indicator for patients' preparedness before a trial of smoking reduction.European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 07/2014; 265(3). DOI:10.1007/s00406-014-0515-7 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A common remark among laypeople, and notably also among mental health workers, is that individuals with mental illnesses use drugs as self-medication to allay clinical symptoms and the side effects of drug treatments. Roots of the self-medication concept in psychiatry date back at least to the 1980s. Observations that rates of smokers in schizophrenic patients are multiple times the rates for regular smoking in the general population, as well as those with other disorders, proved particularly tempting for a self-medication explanation. Additional evidence came from experiments with animal models exposed to nicotine and the identification of neurobiological mechanisms suggesting self-medication with smoking is a plausible idea. More recently, results from studies comparing smoking and non-smoking schizophrenic patients have led to the questioning of the self-medication hypothesis. Closer examination of the literature points to the possibility that smoking is less beneficial on schizophrenic symptomology than generally assumed while clearly increasing the risk of cancer and other smoking-related diseases responsible for early mortality. It is a good time to examine the evidence for the self-medication concept as it relates to smoking. Our approach is to focus on data addressing direct or implied predictions of the hypothesis in schizophrenic smokers.03/2015; 5(1):35-46. DOI:10.5498/wjp.v5.i1.35
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