New horizons in adjuvants for vaccine development.
ABSTRACT Over the last decade, there has been a flurry of research on adjuvants for vaccines, and several novel adjuvants are now in licensed products or in late stage clinical development. The success of adjuvants in enhancing the immune response to recombinant antigens has led many researchers to re-focus their vaccine development programs. Successful vaccine development requires knowing which adjuvants to use and knowing how to formulate adjuvants and antigens to achieve stable, safe and immunogenic vaccines. For the majority of vaccine researchers this information is not readily available, nor is access to well-characterized adjuvants. In this review, we outline the current state of adjuvant research and development and how formulation parameters can influence the effectiveness of adjuvants.
SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Adjuvants such as the aluminum compounds (alum) have been dominantly used in many vaccines due to their immunopotentiation and safety records since 1920s. However, how these mineral agents influence the immune response to vaccination remains elusive. Many hypotheses exist as to the mode of action of these adjuvants, such as depot formation, antigen (Ag) targeting, and the induction of inflammation. These hypotheses are based on many in vitro and few in vivo studies. Understanding how cells interact with adjuvants in vivo will be crucial to fully understanding the mechanisms of action of these adjuvants. Interestingly, how alum influences the target cell at both the cellular and molecular level, and the consequent innate and adaptive responses, will be critical in the rational design of effective vaccines against many diseases. Thus, in this review, mechanisms of action of alum have been discussed based on available in vitro vs in vivo evidences to date.SpringerPlus 12/2015; 4(1-1):181. DOI:10.1186/s40064-015-0972-0
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vaccines are the most effective and cost-efficient method for preventing diseases caused by infectious pathogens. Despite the great success of vaccines, development of safe and strong vaccines is still required for emerging new pathogens, re-emerging old pathogens, and in order to improve the inadequate protection conferred by existing vaccines. One of the most important strategies for the development of effective new vaccines is the selection and usage of a suitable adjuvant. Immunologic adjuvants are essential for enhancing vaccine potency by improvement of the humoral and/or cell-mediated immune response to vaccine antigens. Thus, formulation of vaccines with appropriate adjuvants is an attractive approach towards eliciting protective and long-lasting immunity in humans. However, only a limited number of adjuvants is licensed for human vaccines due to concerns about safety and toxicity. We summarize current knowledge about the potential benefits of adjuvants, the characteristics of adjuvants and the mechanisms of adjuvants in human vaccines. Adjuvants have diverse modes of action and should be selected for use on the basis of the type of immune response that is desired for a particular vaccine. Better understanding of current adjuvants will help exploring new adjuvant formulations and facilitate rational design of vaccines against infectious diseases.Immune Network 04/2015; 15(2):51-7. DOI:10.4110/in.2015.15.2.51
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Most pathogens initiate their infections at the human mu-cosal surface. Therefore, mucosal vaccination, especially through oral or intranasal administration routes, is highly desired for infectious diseases. Meanwhile, protein-based antigens provide a safer alternative to the whole pathogen or DNA based ones in vaccine development. However, the unique biopharmaceutical hurdles that intranasally or orally delivered protein vaccines need to overcome before they reach the sites of targeting, the relatively low im-munogenicity, as well as the low stability of the protein antigens, require thoughtful and fine-tuned mucosal vaccine formulations, including the selection of immunos-timulants, the identification of the suitable vaccine delivery system, and the determination of the exact composition and manufacturing conditions. This review aims to provide an up-to-date survey of the protein antigen-based vaccine formulation development, including the usage of im-munostimulants and the optimization of vaccine delivery systems for intranasal and oral administrations.Protein & Cell 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s13238-015-0164-2 · 2.85 Impact Factor