Dioxin and dioxin-like PCB profiles in the serum of industrial and municipal waste incinerator workers in Korea.
ABSTRACT To assess occupational exposure, we determined the concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in human serum samples from 26 incinerator workers (10 industrial waste and 16 municipal solid waste incinerator workers), 38 residents near the facilities and 7 inhabitants (as control subjects) living over 10 km away from any incinerator facilities in Korea. The mean TEQ(WHO) levels of PCDD/Fs in the industrial and MSWI workers were 41.57 and 9.86 pg TEQ(WHO) g(-1) lipid, respectively. For the residents, the mean TEQ(WHO) was 13.47 pg TEQ(WHO) g(-1) lipid (residents near IWI, MSWI, and control subjects: 17.64, 13.31, and 6.91 pg TEQ(WHO) g(-1) lipid). Higher levels of certain PCDD/F congeners, mainly PCDFs, were detected in the serum of industrial incinerator workers in comparison to the levels measured in the residents. Significant differences were observed for PCDFs, the major compounds were OCDF, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, and the minor components 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF, 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF, and 2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDF (p<0.01). The PCDD/F congener patterns and concentrations measured in the 71 serum samples examined suggest that the industrial incinerator workers were exposed to PCDD/Fs in the workplace, possibly through inhalation and/or skin contact. In contrast, the levels and congener patterns of PCBs measured were similar in all subjects, indicating that workers from the incinerator facilities examined were not subjected to additional exposure to these compounds.
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ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated concentration, congener distribution pattern, and effects of potential environmental factors that affect PBDE accumulation. We also estimated correlation between PBDE concentration and health status or thyroid function by analyzing 90 cord blood and 21 breast milk samples obtained from Korean population. Seven from tri- to hepta-BDEs were analyzed by solid phase extraction-high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (SPE-HRGC/HRMS). The total concentration of 7 PBDEs in cord blood was 2.786-94.64 ng g(-1) lipid and that in breast milk was 1.076-8.664 ng g(-1) lipid. Tetra-BDE (#47) was the predominant type of PBDE and was present at concentrations of over 40% in both sample types. A weak correlation was observed between the concentration of BDE28 and 153 and thyroid hormone concentration only in the breast milk samples. In children, a weak negative correlation was observed between free thyroxine (FT4) concentration and BDE28 concentration (0.302, p<0.05), while in mothers, a weak positive correlation was observed between thyroid hormone concentration and BDE153 concentration (0.403, p<0.05). No significant correlations between PBDE concentration and work and residential environments were found in this study, but a weak correlation between BDE concentration in cord blood and potential PBDE sources was confirmed by investigating the frequency of oil paint usage (0.510, p<0.001). A weak correlation was also found between PBDE concentration in breast milk during pregnancy and dietary habits such as green tea drinking (0.541, p=0.025) and Trichiuridae intake (0.565, p=0.015).Chemosphere 09/2011; 85(3):487-93. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.08.008 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study developed an integrated approach to identify pollutant sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) of workers based on their blood contents. We first measured blood PCDD/F contents of sinter plant workers and residents living near the plant. By comparing those blood indicatory PCDD/Fs found for residents with those for sinter plant workers, exposure-related blood indicatory PCDD/Fs were identified for each selected worker. We then measured PCDD/F concentrations of four different sinter plant workplaces and three different ambient environments of the background. By comparing those airborne indicatory PCDD/Fs found for ambient environments with those for sinter plant workplaces, exposure-related airborne indicatory PCDD/Fs for each workplace were obtained. Finally, by matching exposure-related blood indicatory PCDD/Fs with exposure-related airborne indicatory PCDD/Fs, all suspected pollutant sources were identified for each selected worker. Poor Pearson correlations were found between workers' blood contents and their corresponding PCDD/F exposures. Significant differences were found in the top three blood indicatory PCDD/Fs among the selected workers. By matching exposure-related blood indicatory PCDD/Fs with exposure-related airborne indicatory PCDD/Fs, two to three suspected pollutant sources were identified for each selected worker. The poor Pearson correlation found between workers' airborne PCDD/Fs exposures and their blood contents was because workers' blood PCDD/Fs contents were contributed not only by workers' occupational exposures, but also by other exposure sources and exposure routes. The difference in blood indicatory PCDD/Fs among the selected workers were obviously due to the intrinsic differences in their time/activity patterns in the involved workplaces. While workers used a dust respirator to perform their jobs, gas phase exposure-related airborne indicatory PCDD/Fs played an important role on identifying suspected pollutant sources. But if a dust respirator was not used, the gas + particle phase exposure-related airborne indicatory PCDD/Fs would become the key factor for identifying suspected pollutant sources. The developed integrated approach could identify all suspected pollutant sources effectively for selected workers based on their blood contents. The identified pollutant sources were theoretically plausible since they could be verified by examining workers' time/activity patterns, their status in using dust respirators, and the concentrations of PCDD/Fs found in the selected workplace atmospheres. The developed technique can be used to identify possible pollutant sources not only for workers but also for many other exposure groups associated with various emission sources and exposure routes in the future.Environmental Science and Pollution Research 06/2009; 17(3):759-69. DOI:10.1007/s11356-009-0162-0 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Spatial and temporal trends of organic contaminants in sediments along the Korean coast were estimated through a nationwide environmental monitoring program from 2001 to 2007. The concentrations of organic contaminants in sediments along the Korean coast were relatively low or moderate compared with foreign studies. The mean detection frequencies of organic contaminants during the seven years were highest for PAHs and PCDD/Fs, followed by PCBs, DDTs, TBT and HCHs in decreasing order. Based on published sediment quality guidelines, the ecological risks of persistent organic pollutants in sediments along the Korean coast were low, despite exceedances of the ERL at 2-6 sites for DDTs, and the TEL at 9-18 sites for PCDD/Fs. Nonparametric tests to assess temporal trends revealed significant decreasing trends for PCBs and PCDD/Fs at four and three sites, respectively (p<0.05). These results reflect the effects of regulations on the use of those contaminants.Marine Pollution Bulletin 06/2011; 62(6):1352-61. DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.03.029 · 2.79 Impact Factor