The African Fusarium/maize disease.
ABSTRACT There is a general but rather vague feeling that the use of maize (corn) as a staple foodstuff by black rural Africans is somehow a factor in, or is linked to, chronic disease found in these populations. An attempt is made in this review to consider the evidence for this connection and to identify what is actually the root of the problem. The main thrust of the argument to explain this perception is that maize is routinely contaminated with fungi and of these Fusarium verticillioides is found in maize throughout the world. Evidence is presented to this effect and, further, of the mycotoxins found in maize, the fumonisins are the most common and at the highest levels. Various animal chronic diseases arising from the consumption of contaminated maize are reviewed and possible human conditions listed, in some cases related to the known animal ones. A brief overview of the complicated cellular mechanisms of fumonisin B1 is given and it is concluded that the prime suspect in what might be called "the maize disease" can be attributed to the ingestion of this mycotoxin, sometimes in combination with other synergist mycotoxins and other disease factors, such as smoking and drinking.
- SourceAvailable from: Hester VismerWorld Mycotoxin Journal 02/2012; 5(1):89-102. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has a primary role in the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). The objective of this study was to determine whether fumonisin mycotoxins influence the character and/or the severity of pathological processes induced in the lungs of pigs by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Four groups of pigs (n = 7/group) were used, one fed 20 ppm fumonisin B1 (FB1) from 16 days of age (group F), one only infected with M. hyopneumoniae on study day 30 (group M), and a group fed FB1 and infected with M. hyopneumoniae (group MF), along with an untreated control group (group C). Computed tomography (CT) scans of infected pigs (M and MF) on study day 44 demonstrated lesions extending to the cranial and middle or in the cranial third of the caudal lobe of the lungs. The CT images obtained on study day 58 showed similar but milder lesions in 5 animals from group M, whereas lungs from 2 pigs in group MF appeared progressively worse. The evolution of average pulmonary density calculated from combined pixel frequency values, as measured by quantitative CT, was significantly influenced by the treatment and the age of the animals. The most characteristic histopathologic lesion in FB1-treated pigs was pulmonary edema, whereas the pathomorphological changes in Mycoplasma-infected pigs were consistent with catarrhal bronchointerstitial pneumonia. FB1 aggravated the progression of infection, as demonstrated by severe illness requiring euthanasia observed in 1 pig and evidence of progressive pathology in 2 pigs (group MF) between study days 44 and 58.Veterinary Pathology 03/2013; · 2.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lymphocytes cell obtained from healthy human donors and pigs were exposed to fumonisin B1 (FB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA), which have been found to be immunosuppressive, carcinogenic and mutagenic, to ascertain their single and combined cytotoxic effects with time and to assess the suitability of animal lymphocytes as test agents in comparison to human cells. The main objectives of this work were to assess the use of animal lymphocytes, particularly pig lymphocytes, for their use in the Methyl Thiazol Tetrazolium (MTT) cytotoxicity test, making them more accessible to animal research-based institutes in comparison to human lymphocytes previously used, and to study the cytotoxic and synergism or antagonistic effects of FB1 and OTA. The MTT assay, which measures cell viability and proliferation based on reduction of MTT to a blue dye, also used the addition of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) to stimulate the blood cells. The results showed a progressive decrease in lymphocytes viability with time of exposure to the toxins. It was also noted that FB1, as compared to OTA, had a lower cytotoxicity on both human and pig lymphocytes cells. In addition, when the two mycotoxins were combined, a synergistic decrease of cell viability in both human and pig lymphocytes was observed, with pig lymphocytes showing a greater sensitivity. This study has shown that the MTT assay can be used for the determination of cytotoxicity of mycotoxins using animal, and in particular pig, lymphocytes, which eliminates the use of human donors and other cell cultures.Mycotoxin Research 12/2009; 25(4):233-238.