The African Fusarium/maize disease.
ABSTRACT There is a general but rather vague feeling that the use of maize (corn) as a staple foodstuff by black rural Africans is somehow a factor in, or is linked to, chronic disease found in these populations. An attempt is made in this review to consider the evidence for this connection and to identify what is actually the root of the problem. The main thrust of the argument to explain this perception is that maize is routinely contaminated with fungi and of these Fusarium verticillioides is found in maize throughout the world. Evidence is presented to this effect and, further, of the mycotoxins found in maize, the fumonisins are the most common and at the highest levels. Various animal chronic diseases arising from the consumption of contaminated maize are reviewed and possible human conditions listed, in some cases related to the known animal ones. A brief overview of the complicated cellular mechanisms of fumonisin B1 is given and it is concluded that the prime suspect in what might be called "the maize disease" can be attributed to the ingestion of this mycotoxin, sometimes in combination with other synergist mycotoxins and other disease factors, such as smoking and drinking.
SourceAvailable from: Ayman Amer Eissa
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Fusarium toxins with reference to fumonisin B1 (FB1) have long been regarded as contaminants of maize and maize-based related products. However, when consumed can cause intoxication, especially in humans. Therefore, effective quantitative methods for assessing dietary exposure of this toxic fungal metabolite are required. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect on the use of bio-wipe kit, which is a faecal material collection kit to detect the presence of FB1. Faecal materials were collected from a rural farming community in Gauteng Province, South Africa. In total, 200 samples of faecal material were analysed for Fusarium species using a serial dilution method, while FB1 was further analysed and quantified by reversed-phase thin layer chromatography (TLC) and HPLC. The study showed the presence of 11 different Fusarium species grown on potato dextrose agar culture medium of which, F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, producers of FB1 and F. oxysporum, were the dominant species. Fumonisin B1 was recorded at an incidence rate of 65% of the total using TLC. Results from HPLC showed that 84% were positive at different ranges of concentration for FB1. This study supports the use of bio-wipe as a rapid method to determine human exposure to FB1.Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 08/2014; 31(10). DOI:10.1080/19440049.2014.957248 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lymphocytes cell obtained from healthy human donors and pigs were exposed to fumonisin B1 (FB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA), which have been found to be immunosuppressive, carcinogenic and mutagenic, to ascertain their single and combined cytotoxic effects with time and to assess the suitability of animal lymphocytes as test agents in comparison to human cells. The main objectives of this work were to assess the use of animal lymphocytes, particularly pig lymphocytes, for their use in the Methyl Thiazol Tetrazolium (MTT) cytotoxicity test, making them more accessible to animal research-based institutes in comparison to human lymphocytes previously used, and to study the cytotoxic and synergism or antagonistic effects of FB1 and OTA. The MTT assay, which measures cell viability and proliferation based on reduction of MTT to a blue dye, also used the addition of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) to stimulate the blood cells. The results showed a progressive decrease in lymphocytes viability with time of exposure to the toxins. It was also noted that FB1, as compared to OTA, had a lower cytotoxicity on both human and pig lymphocytes cells. In addition, when the two mycotoxins were combined, a synergistic decrease of cell viability in both human and pig lymphocytes was observed, with pig lymphocytes showing a greater sensitivity. This study has shown that the MTT assay can be used for the determination of cytotoxicity of mycotoxins using animal, and in particular pig, lymphocytes, which eliminates the use of human donors and other cell cultures.Mycotoxin Research 12/2009; 25(4):233-238. DOI:10.1007/s12550-009-0033-z