Expression and regulation of apolipoprotein E receptors in the cells of the central nervous system in culture: A review.
ABSTRACT The importance of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in the central nervous system (CNS) became increasingly clear since the descovery that apoE ε4 allele is a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. ApoE is one of the major apolipoproteins that acts as a ligand for the cellular uptake of lipoproteins via apoE receptors, members of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family, in the CNS. Recently, LDLR family has been shown to have new functions that modulate intracellular signalling and affect neuronal and glial functions, survival and regeneration. However, the pattern of expression of apoE receptors in the CNS has not been fully clarified yet. The LDLR, very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), LDLR-related protein (LRP), and apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (apoER2) are known to bind to and internalize apoE-containing lipoproteins. Here we summarize the expression of apoE receptors in the CNS and demonstrate additional our original data on cell type specific expression and regulation of those receptors in the CNS, using in situ hybridization and RT-PCR. The cells used in our study were highly enriched cultures of neurons, astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes isolated from rat brain and neuroblastoma cell line, Neuro2a. All of these four types of receptors were shown to be expressed in neurons, astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes, while LDLR and LRP were expressed in Neuro2a cells. We further examined the regulation of the expression of these receptors by altering the cholesterol content of the cells, and found that only the LDLR expression was downregulated following internalization of lipoprotein cholesterol and upregulated by cholesterol deprivation, in neuronal and astroglial cells. These data together with previous studies suggest that LDLR, VLDL, LRP, and apoER2 may be involved in apoE-mediated lipid uptake and/or intracellualr signalling in the cells of the CNS cells, i.e., neurons, astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes.
Article: Novel action of apolipoprotein E (ApoE): ApoE isoform specifically inhibits lipid-particle-mediated cholesterol release from neurons.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Since the majority of apolipoprotein E (apoE) existing in the cerebrospinal fluid is associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL), one should focus on the role of the apoE-HDL complex rather than on that of free apoE in cholesterol metabolism in the central nervous system. However, the apoE-isoform-specific effect of apoE-HDL on cholesterol transport remains unclarified. Here we show that apoE3-HDL induced a marked cholesterol release from neurons, while apoE4-HDL induced little. To elucidate the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we used a complex of lipid emulsion (EM) with recombinant apoE3 or apoE4 (apoE-EM) at various apoE concentrations. When a small number of apoE molecules were associated with EM, apoE3- and apoE4-EM, induced a marked cholesterol release to a level similar to that induced by EM alone. However, when apoE at given concentrations was incubated with EM, apoE3-EM induced a marked cholesterol release, while apoE4-EM induced little. Under these conditions, a greater number of apoE4 molecules were associated with EM than apoE3 molecules. When an increasing number of apoE molecules were associated with EM, both apoE3-EM and apoE4-EM induced little cholesterol release. Preincubation with beta-mercaptoethanol increased the number of apoE3 molecules associated with EM similar to that of apoE4 molecules, indicating that the presence (apoE3) or absence (apoE4) of intermolecular disulfide bond formation is responsible for the association of a greater number of apoE4 molecules to EM than apoE3 molecules. These results suggest that although apoE and a lipid particle are lipid acceptors, when apoE and a lipid particle form a complex, apoE on the particle surface inhibits the lipid particle-mediated cholesterol release from cells in an apoE-concentration-dependent manner.Molecular Neurodegeneration 02/2007; 2:9. · 4.28 Impact Factor