Effects of Free Fatty Acids on Human Salivary Gland Epithelial Cells
ABSTRACT Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are characterized by decreased insulin sensitivity and higher concentrations of free fatty acids (FFAs) in plasma. Among FFAs, saturated fatty acids (SFAs), such as palmitate, have been proposed to promote inflammatory responses. Primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory mononuclear cell infiltration and destruction of epithelial cells in the salivary and lacrimal glands. IL-6 production and α-fodrin degradation are increased in salivary gland epithelial cells of patients with primary SS. Although previous studies have shown a link between SS and either dyslipidemia or T2D, little is known about the clinical significance of FFAs in primary SS. Here we report that SFAs, but not unsaturated fatty acids, induced IL-6 production via NF-κB and p38 MAPK activation in human salivary gland epithelial cells. Moreover, palmitate induced apoptosis and α-fodrin degradation by caspase-3 activation. Unlike salivary gland epithelial cells, induction of IL-6 production and the degradation of α-fodrin in response to palmitate were undetectable in squamous carcinoma cells and keratinocytes. Taken together, SFAs induced IL-6 production and α-fodrin degradation in salivary gland epithelial cells, implicating a potential link between the pathogenesis of primary SS and SFAs level in plasma.
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ABSTRACT: Increased intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), such as palmitate (Pal), is linked to a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although recent studies have investigated the direct effects of SFAs on inflammatory responses in vascular endothelial cells, it remains unknown whether SFAs also induce these responses mediated by circulating cells. In this study, especially focused on adhesion molecules and monocytes, we investigated the indirect effects of Pal on expression and release of ICAM-1 and E-selectin in vascular endothelial cells. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-treated THP-1 (pTHP-1) cells and human monocytes were stimulated with various free fatty acids (FFAs). SFAs, but not unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), increased interleukin (IL)-1β secretion and decreased IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) secretion, resulting in an increase in the IL-1β/IL-1Ra secretion ratio. UFAs dose-dependently inhibited the increase in IL-1β secretion and decrease in IL-1Ra secretion induced by Pal. Moreover, in human aortic and vein endothelial cells, expression and release of ICAM-1 and E-selectin were induced by treatment with conditioned medium collected from Pal-stimulated pTHP-1 cells and human monocytes, but not by Pal itself. The up-regulated expression and release of adhesion molecules by the conditioned medium were mostly abolished by recombinant human IL-1Ra supplementation. These results suggest that the Pal-induced increase in the ratio of IL-1β/IL-1Ra secretion in monocytes up-regulates endothelial adhesion molecules, which could enhance leukocyte adhesion to endothelium. This study provides further evidence that IL-1β neutralization through receptor antagonism may be useful for preventing the onset and development of cardiovascular disease. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Cellular Physiology 03/2015; 230(3). DOI:10.1002/jcp.24797 · 3.87 Impact Factor