Duff BJ, Macritchie KA, Moorhead TW, Lawrie SM, Blackwood DH. Human brain imaging studies of DISC1 in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression: a systematic review. Schizophr Res 147: 1-13

University of Edinburgh, Division of Psychiatry, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, Edinburgh EH10 5HF, United Kingdom. Electronic address: .
Schizophrenia Research (Impact Factor: 3.92). 04/2013; DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2013.03.015
Source: PubMed


Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a well researched candidate gene for schizophrenia and affective disorders with a range of functions relating to neurodevelopment. Several human brain imaging studies investigating correlations between common and rare variants in DISC1 and brain structure and function have shown conflicting results. A meta-analysis of case/control data showed no association between schizophrenia and any common SNP in DISC1. Therefore it is timely to review the literature to plan the direction of future studies.

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Available from: Stephen Lawrie, Dec 30, 2014
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    • "Consequently, there is a large and ever growing number of publications, particularly for genetic polymorphisms known to be relevant to psychiatric illness and behavioural problems, as reviewed (e.g. Iofrida et al. 2014; Erhardt and Spoormaker 2013; Duff et al. 2013; Flint and Munafo 2013; Tost et al. 2012; Hasler and Northoff 2011; Meyer-Lindenberg 2010; Durston 2010). This work builds on the broader literature of gene characterisation, including studies of gene structure and the identification of critical polymorphisms, protein expression in the brain, as well as physiological function and implication in brainrelated illnesses (e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: A wealth of empirical evidence is accumulating on the genetic mediation of brain structure phenotypes. This comes from twin studies that assess heritability and genetic covariance between traits, candidate gene associations, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that can identify specific genetic variants. Here we review the major findings from each of these approaches and consider how they inform on the genetic architecture of brain structure. The findings from twin studies show there is a strong genetic influence (heritability) on brain structure, and overlap of genetic effects (pleiotropy) between structures, and between structure and cognition. However, there is also evidence for genetic specificity, with distinct genetic effects across some brain regions. Candidate gene associations show little convergence; most have been under powered to detect effect sizes of the magnitude now expected. GWAS have identified 19 genetic variants for brain structure, though no replicated associations account for more than 1 % of the variance. Together these studies are revealing new insights into the genetic architecture of brain morphology. As the scope of inquiry broadens, including measures that capture the complexity of the brain, along with larger samples and new analyses, such as genome-wide common trait analysis (GCTA) and polygenic scores, which combine variant effects for a phenotype, as well as whole-genome sequencing, more genetic variants for brain structure will be identified. Increasingly, large-scale multi-site studies will facilitate this next wave of studies, and promise to enhance our understanding of the etiology of variation in brain morphology, as well as brain disorders.
    Neuropsychology Review 03/2015; 25(1). DOI:10.1007/s11065-015-9281-1 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    • "Given that a number of previous studies both in psychiatric patients and transgenic mouse models have emphasised links between DISC1 and structural and functional changes in the frontal cortex and hippocampus (Callicott et al., 2005, Duff et al., 2013, Thomson et al., 2013), it is perhaps surprising that our brain-wide association study failed to support this, other than in terms of the functional link between the precuneus and the triangular inferior frontal gyrus. This may reflect the fact that we only found links with novel DISC1 polymorphisms, whereas previous studies showing DISC1 associations with the frontal cortex and hippocampus have focussed mainly on L607F (rs6675281) and S704C (rs821616). "
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    ABSTRACT: The Disrupted in Schizophrenia Gene 1 (DISC1) plays a role in both neural signaling and development and is associated with schizophrenia, although its links to altered brain structure and function in this disorder are not fully established. Here we have used structural and functional MRI to investigate links with six DISC1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We employed a brain-wide association analysis (BWAS) together with a Jacknife internal validation approach in 46 schizophrenia patients and 24 matched healthy control subjects. Results from structural MRI showed significant associations between all six DISC1 variants and gray matter volume in the precuneus, post-central gyrus and middle cingulate gyrus. Associations with specific SNPs were found for rs2738880 in the left precuneus and right post-central gyrus, and rs1535530 in the right precuneus and middle cingulate gyrus. Using regions showing structural associations as seeds a resting-state functional connectivity analysis revealed significant associations between all 6 SNPS and connectivity between the right precuneus and inferior frontal gyrus. The connection between the right precuneus and inferior frontal gyrus was also specifically associated with rs821617. Importantly schizophrenia patients showed positive correlations between the six DISC-1 SNPs associated gray matter volume in the left precuneus and right post-central gyrus and negative symptom severity. No correlations with illness duration were found. Our results provide the first evidence suggesting a key role for structural and functional connectivity associations between DISC1 polymorphisms and the precuneus in schizophrenia. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 11/2014; 35(11). DOI:10.1002/hbm.22560 · 5.97 Impact Factor
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    • "The effect of rs821616 is among the most studied, with the A (Ser704) allele, associated with impact on neurodevelopment and brain structure in health and disease (Duff et al. 2013), in our sample both under-transmitted and over-transmitted haplotypes, containing this allele was detected. A limitation of our study is the small sample size affecting the power to detect the presumed weak effect of the investigated SNP. "

    09/2013; 210(3). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2013.09.005
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