OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect size of wearing sports garments treated with microscopic titanium particles (AQUA TITAN) during recovery from strenuous running on the restoration of running economy during subsequent exercise. DESIGN: A double-blind crossover was used to determine the effect of AQUA TITAN on running metabolic cost in 10 healthy men. Participants performed 40min of treadmill running comprising 2×(10min at 5% and 10min at -10% grade), followed by random allocation to skin-tight nylon-polyurethane AQUA TITAN treated or non-treated placebo garments covering the torso, limbs, and feet. Garments were worn continuously throughout the next 48-h, during which time participants rested (day 2) then completed a graded treadmill run to determine metabolic outcome (day 3). METHODS: Body-weight normalised running metabolic cost was evaluated by indirect calorimetry and the effect size referenced against the smallest meaningful change in economy (0.9%) for improvement in distance running performance. RESULTS: The fatigue effect while wearing control garments on metabolic cost at 48-h was small (2.2% 95%CL ±1.2%). In contrast, AQUA TITAN garments most certainly reduced running metabolic cost (-3.1% ±0.9%) vs. control. Additionally, AQUA TITAN increased the respiratory exchange ratio (0.011 ±0.005) and lowered minute ventilation at intensities below the ventilatory threshold (-4.0% ±0.9%). CONCLUSIONS: AQUA TITAN garments worn during recovery from strenuous exercise improved subsequent running economy to a magnitude likely to restore endurance performance. Future research should verify the magnitude of garment effects on performance outcomes, and on identifying the acute or passive neural, musculotendinous or metabolic mechanisms responsible.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported increased running economy and joint range of motion (ROM) during subsequent exercise performed 48-h following strenuous exercise while wearing garments containing micro-titanium particles generated from high-pressure aqueous processing of titanium (AQUA TITAN(TM)). Here we utilised an isolated plantarflexion triceps surae model and AQUA TITAN-treated flexible tape to determine if dermal application of the micro-titanium could account for meaningful changes in functional properties of the musculotendinous unit. In a randomised double-blind crossover, 20 trained men day 1, baseline measures, AQUA TITAN or placebo tape covering the triceps surae, intermittent high-intensity treadmill running; day 2, rest; day 3, post-stress post-treatment outcome measures. Outcomes comprised: plantarflexion ROM via isokinetic dynamometry; short latency reflex from electromyography; Achilles tendon stiffness from isometric dynamometry, ultrasonography (Achilles-medial-gastrocnemius junction), motion analysis, and force-length modelling. High-intensity exercise with placebo tape reduced tendon stiffness (-16.5%; 95% confidence limits ±8.1%; small effect size), relative to non-taped baseline, but this effect was negligible (-5.9%; ±9.2%) with AQUA TITAN (AQUA TITAN-placebo difference -11.3%; ±11.6%). Change in latency relative to baseline was trivial with placebo (1.6%; ±3.8%) but large with AQUA TITAN (-11.3%; ±3.3%). The effects on ROM with AQUA TITAN (1.6%; ±2.0%) and placebo were trivial (-1.6% ±1.9%), but the small difference (3.1%; ±2.7%) possibly greater with AQUA TITAN. AQUA TITAN tape accelerated the reflex response and attenuated reduced Achilles tendon stiffness following fatiguing exercise. Altered neuromuscular control of tendon stiffness via dermal application of micro-titanium treated materials may facilitate restoration of musculotendinous contractile performance following prior strenuous exercise.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Titanium is biocompatible and widely utilized in a variety of applications. Recently, titanium in pico-nanometer scale and soluble form (Aqua Titan) has expanded its use to applied human health and performance. The purpose of this article is to review the current evidence associated with specific physiological responses to Aqua Titan-treated materials. In vitro studies have shown that application of Aqua Titan can modify membrane potential and long-term potentiation in isolated hippocampal neurons, suggesting reduced pain memory as a possible mechanism for reported analgesia. Proximal contact with Aqua Titan-treated titanium increased gene expression, protein synthesis, cell growth and adhesion in normal cultured muscle and bone cells, suggesting application for Aqua Titan in clinical implant procedures and wound healing. Evidence for beneficial effects on neuromuscular control of muscle-tendon function and improvements in running economy in human athletes was seen when Aqua Titan-treated tape was applied to the human triceps surae following fatigue induced by prior strenuous exercise. Finally, behavioral responses and effects on the autonomic nervous system to environmental exposure suggest Aqua Titan may promote a mild relaxant, or stress-suppressive response. Together, data suggest exposure to Aqua Titan-treated materials modulates aspects of growth and function in neuronal and other musculoskeletal cells with possible benefits to musculotendinous recovery from exercise and to the systemic response to stress.
03/2014; 5(1):1-14. DOI:10.3390/jfb5010001
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