Dental and related infections.
ABSTRACT Emergency physicians should be comfortable treating most dental and related infections. In this article, we outline recommended techniques to perform a dental examination, explore common pathologies, recommend pain and antibiotic management strategies and review common pitfalls. How to avoid overprescribing opioid analgesics is discussed in depth, along with recent studies to support this strategy.
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ABSTRACT: The applications of lithium ions as an agent to facilitate bone formation have been widely documented; however, the effect of lithium ions in the periodontitis model has not yet been elucidated. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate the effect of single lithium ions in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A periodontitis model was induced in cementoblasts using LPS. The cytotoxic effect of the lithium ions on the cementoblasts was studied through the MTT assay. Alkaline phosphatase analysis and alizarin red staining were performed to investigate the effect of the lithium ions on differentiation. To examine the effect of lithium ions on osteoclastogenesis, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) mRNA and protein expression levels were assessed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis and ELISA, respectively. Compared with the effect induced by lithium ions on normal cementoblasts, proliferation and differentiation were downregulated following the co-incubation of the cementoblasts with LPS and lithium ions. Furthermore, the lithium ions appeared to alter osteoclastogenesis by regulating the OPG/RANKL ratio. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that lithium ions can downregulate proliferation and differentiation in a periodontitis model. Further studies should be undertaken prior to the acceptance of lithium ions for use in the clinic.Experimental and therapeutic medicine 02/2015; 9(4). DOI:10.3892/etm.2015.2276 · 0.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Baicalein is one of the major flavonoids in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, which has long been used in Asia as herbal medicine. Several biological effects of baicalein, such as antiviral, anti-inflammatiom, anti-hepatotoxicity, and anti-tumor properties, have been reported. Objective and Design In this study, the antibacterial activities of baicalein were investigated in combination with ampicillin and/or gentamicin against oral bacteria. Results Baicalein was determined with MIC and MBC values ranging from 80 to 320 and 160 to 640 μg/mL against oral bacteria. The range of MIC50 and MIC90 were 20-160 μg/mL and 80-320 μg/mL, respectively. The combination effects of baicalein with antibiotics were synergistic (FIC index <0.375-0.5 and FBCI <0.5) against oral bacteria. Furthermore, a time-kill study showed that the growth of the tested bacteria was completely attenuated after 1-6 h of treatment with the MIC50 of baicalein, regardless of whether it was administered alone or with ampicillin or gentamicin. Conclusion These results suggest that baicalein combined with other antibiotics may be microbiologically beneficial and not antagonistic.Archives of Oral Biology 11/2014; 59(11). DOI:10.1016/j.archoralbio.2014.07.008 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patients often present to their physician with complaints of dental and/or oral pain. It is important for physicians to understand the complexities of oral anatomy and how to perform a basic clinical examination of this area to evaluate and potentially manage patients with these complaints. This article discusses anatomic structures of the oral cavity and systematic clinical examination of this area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Medical Clinics of North America 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.mcna.2014.08.001 · 2.80 Impact Factor