Inflammatory Cells and Cytokines in the Olfactory Bulb of a Rat Model of Neuroinflammation; Insights into Neurodegeneration?
ABSTRACT This study examined inflammatory cell and cytokine production in brain tissue from a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated rat model that mimics many of the neuropathologic changes associated with neurodegenerative diseases We also monitored the appearance of a glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and circulating nitric oxide (NO) levels, as well as an immune system-associated cells in a selected area of the brain, the olfactory lobe. The studies were based on the hypothesis that LPS treatment stimulates temporal changes within the brain and that these responses include immune cell recruitment, increased tissue levels of immune modulating cytokines and NO, as well as greater glial cell activation resulting in increased production of GDNF. As previously reported by other investigators, our animal model of systemic LPS treatment leads to an increase in the concentrations of circulating cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-Iβ, and IL-6, with a maximum response 6 h post LPS administration. Concomitant with cytokine elevations, circulating NO levels were elevated for several hours post LPS administration. The brain content of the GDNF was also elevated over a similar time frame. Lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, plasma cells, and cytokines were all seen in various areas of LPS-treated brains, often around blood vessels associated with the meninges, with these localizations possibly indicating involvement of both the blood-brain and blood-cerebral spinal fluid barriers in these inflammatory episodes. Our results suggest an involvement of both the peripheral and the central nervous system immune components in response to inflammation and inflammatory episodes. This leads us to propose that inflammation initiates an immune response by activating both microglia and astrocytes and that the presence of continuing and increasing proinflammatory mechanisms results in a situation, where cellular protective mechanisms are overcome and the more susceptible cells enter into cell death pathways, initiating a train of events that is a major part of neurodegeneration.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of intracarotid injection of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the rat. A regional blood-to-brain transfer constant (Ki) for [14C] alpha-aminoisobutyric acid ([14C]AIB) and the cerebral residual blood volume were calculated 10 min following administration of cytokines (CKs; 1000 U/rat). The injection of IL-2 and IL-6 (but not of IL-1 beta) induced a significant enhancement of Ki values for [14C]AIB within several brain areas; conversely, when the rats were given TNF-alpha, a striking decrease in BBB permeability was observed. The cerebral regional blood volumes appeared significantly lower in the rats injected with IL-6 than in the control animals, but markedly increased following TNF-alpha administration. Our findings confirm the ability of some CKs to affect the permeability of the BBB and/or to act, probably indirectly, as vasomodulator agents of the cerebral microvessel endothelium.Life Sciences 02/1995; 56(10):775-84. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Proinflammatory cytokines, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-6, have multiple effects in the central nervous system (CNS) not strictly cytotoxic being involved in controlling neuronal and glial activation, proliferation, differentiation and survival, thus influencing neuronal and glial plasticity, degeneration as well as development and regeneration of the nervous system. Moreover, they can contribute to CNS disorders, including multiple sclerosis. Alzheimer's disease and human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia complex. Recent results with deficient mice in the expression of those cytokines indicate that they are in general more sensible to insults resulting in neural damage. Some of the actions induced by TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma, including both beneficial and detrimental, are mediated by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-derived nitric oxide (NO) production. NO produced by iNOS may be beneficial by promoting the differentiation and survival of neurons. IL-6 does not induce iNOS, explaining why this cytokine is less often involved in this dual role protection pathology. Some of the proinflammatory as well as the neurotrophic effects of those cytokines also involve upregulation of cell adhesion molecules (CAM). Those apparently conflicting results may be reconciled considering that proinflammatory cytokines are involved in promoting the disease, mostly by inducing expression of CAM leading to alteration of the blood-brain barrier integrity, whereas they have a protective role once disease is established due to its immunosuppressive or neurotrophic role. Understanding the dichotomy pathogenesis/neuroprotection of those cytokines may provide a rationale for better therapeutic strategies.Progress in Neurobiology 11/1998; 56(3):307-40. · 9.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha are produced within the CNS, and, similar to the periphery, they have pleotrophic and overlapping functions. We have shown previously that TNF-alpha increases neuronal survival to a toxic influx of calcium mediated through neuronal N-methyl-d -aspartic acid (NMDA) glutamate-gated ion channels. This process, termed excitotoxicity, is a major contributor to neuronal death following ischemia or stroke. Neuroprotection by this cytokine requires both activation of the p55/TNF receptor type I and the release of TNF-alpha from neurons, and it is inhibited by the plant alkaloid nicotine. Here, we report that other inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6) are also neuroprotective to excessive NMDA challenge in our system. Neuroprotection provided by IL-1 is distinct from TNF-alpha because it is inhibited by IL-1 receptor antagonist; it is not antagonized by nicotine, but it is inhibited by a neutralizing Ab to nerve growth factor (NGF). Similar to IL-1, IL-6-mediated neuroprotection is also antagonized by pretreatment with IL-1 receptor antagonist and it is not affected by nicotine. However, neutralizing anti-NGF only partially blocks IL-6-mediated protection. These studies support an important role for distinct but overlapping neuroprotective cytokine effects in the CNS.The Journal of Immunology 11/1999; 163(7):3963-8. · 5.52 Impact Factor